Impacts of Grade Configuration on Brazilian Student Outcomes


  • Marcos Vinicio Vinicio Wink Junior Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)
  • Luis Paese Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
  • Marcelo Griebeler Universidade Federal do RIo Grande do Suk


grade configuration, school specialization, public schools


In this paper we evaluate the impact of grade span configuration on student
outcomes. We build a model which shows that the more homogeneous the cohort of
students the higher the share of them which achieves the minimum level of academic
performance required in an exam. We then test this theoretical finding by comparing
performances of 5th-grade students of elementary schools (1st to 5th grade) and those
of elementary-middle schools (1st to 9th grade) in Brazil. PSM and PSM with Diffin-
Diff methodologies are used to control possible biases. We find that elementary
schools present better results in Portuguese language and mathematics standardized
score tests, higher passing rates and lower dropout rates than elementary-middle
schools, which corroborates the theoretical results. The robustness of estimates
is checked through several tests and alternative specifications. Finally, we found
evidence that the main mechanisms behind our results are related to alternative
pedagogical practices and school management policies.

Biografia do Autor

Marcos Vinicio Vinicio Wink Junior, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)

Professor do Departamento de Ciências Econômicas da UDESC.

Marcelo Griebeler, Universidade Federal do RIo Grande do Suk

Professor do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia (PPGE-UFRGS)