Impacto da COVID-19 nas PMEs no Brasil e drivers de percepção gerencial: um novo modelo neural baseado em funções de utilidade ponderadas pela entropia

Conteúdo do artigo principal

Luiz Gustavo Medeiros Barbosa
Peter Fernandes Wanke
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1395-8907
Jorge Junio Moreira Antunes
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3199-5912
Saulo Barroso Rocha
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5441-6747

Resumo

Partindo dos resultados inconclusivos da escassa literatura sobre o impacto do COVID-19 nas pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs), este artigo propõe um novo modelo de avaliação para abordar esse problema por meio de percepções gerenciais. Para atingir esse objetivo, mais de 6.000 PMEs responderam doze rodadas de pesquisas de 2020 a 2021, durante a pandemia, permitindo assim acompanhar a evolução do impacto percebido da pandemia nas pequenas e médias empresas. Uma nova abordagem de função de utilidade ponderada pela entropia é proposta aqui, seguida por regressão de rede neural para mapear quais variáveis relacionadas aos negócios das PMEs impulsionam mais a utilidade percebida de cada critério de negócios durante a pandemia. Primeiro, os pesos dos critérios relacionados aos negócios foram calculados usando a análise de proporção de avaliação de peso passo a passo (SWARA), classificando sua importância relativa - ou percepções - com base nas classificações de entropia de informações derivadas de dados coletados. As medições de entropia de transferência também ajudaram a revelar as relações de causa e efeito entre os critérios. Em segundo lugar, as funções de utilidade comercial para cada critério foram calculadas usando a Avaliação Proporcional Complexa com base nos pesos SWARA. Terceiro, regressões de redes neurais foram usadas para explicar as percepções gerenciais sobre cada critério de negócios durante a pandemia à luz de cada variável de negócios. Nossos resultados, esperados e inesperados, sugerem que as PMEs mais resilientes no Brasil são aquelas com 5 a 10 anos de idade operando nos setores de serviços e construção. Além disso, o sucesso do empréstimo é o segundo critério de maior impacto, impactando profundamente a continuidade dos níveis de atividade econômica; e não é afetado por nenhum outro critério de negócio. Implicações para formuladores de políticas e ações governamentais são destacadas.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Métricas

Carregando Métricas ...

Detalhes do artigo

Como Citar
Barbosa, L. G. M., Wanke, P. F., Antunes, J. J. M., & Rocha, S. B. (2024). Impacto da COVID-19 nas PMEs no Brasil e drivers de percepção gerencial: um novo modelo neural baseado em funções de utilidade ponderadas pela entropia. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 22(1), e2022–0273. https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395120220273
Seção
Artigos

Referências

Adam, N. A., & Alarifi, G. (2021). Innovation practices for survival of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the COVID-19 times: the role of external support. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-021-00156-6

Aghdaie, M. H., Zolfani, S. H., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2012). Prioritizing constructing projects of municipalities based on AHP and COPRAS-G: a case study about footbridges in Iran. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 7(2), 145-153. https://doi.org/10.3846/bjrbe.2012.20

Almeida, A. T. de, Almeida, J. A. de, Costa, A. P. C. S., & Almeida-Filho, A. T. de. (2016). A new method for elicitation of criteria weights in additive models: flexible and interactive tradeoff. European Journal of Operational Research, 250(1), 179-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2015.08.058

Aydogan, E. K. (2011). Performance measurement model for Turkish aviation firms using the rough-AHP and TOPSIS methods under fuzzy environment. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(4), 3992-3998. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2010.09.060

Barbosa, L. G. M., Rocha, S. B., & Guimarães, I. L. B. (2022). The economic impact of Brazil’s cultural incentive policy. Revista Pensamento Contemporâneo Em Administração, 16(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.12712/rpca.v16i1.52479

Bartik, A. W., Bertrand, M., Cullen, Z., Glaeser, E. L., Luca, M., & Stanton, C. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on small business outcomes and expectations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(30), 17656-17666. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006991117

Bekar, E., Cakmakci, M., & Kahraman, C. (2016). Fuzzy COPRAS method for performance measurement in total productive maintenance: a comparative analysis. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 17(5), 663-684. https://doi.org/10.3846/16111699.2016.1202314

Bernardes, R., Borini, F., & Figueiredo, P. N. (2019). Inovação em organizações de economias emergentes. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 17(4), 886-894. https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395120190184

Bretas, V. P. G., & Alon, I. (2020). The impact of COVID‐19 on franchising in emerging markets: an example from Brazil. Global Business and Organizational Excellence, 39(6), 6-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/joe.22053

Brown, R., Rocha, A., & Cowling, M. (2020). Financing entrepreneurship in times of crisis: exploring the impact of COVID-19 on the market for entrepreneurial finance in the United Kingdom. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 38(5), 380-390. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242620937464

Carbó-Valverde, S., Rodríguez-Fernández, F., & Udell, G. F. (2016). Trade credit the financial crisis and SME access to finance. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 48(1), 113-143. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmcb.12292

Cepel, M., Gavurová, B., Dvorský, J., & Bélas, J. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the perception of business risk in the SME segment. The Journal of International Studies, 13(3), 248-263. https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-8330.2020/13-3/16

Clampit, J. A., Lorenz, M. P., Gamble, J. E., & Lee, J. (2021). Performance stability among small and medium-sized enterprises during COVID-19: a test of the efficacy of dynamic capabilities. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 40(3), 403-419. https://doi.org/10.1177/02662426211033270

Costa, A. D. S. M., Paiva, E. L., Gomes, M. V. P., & Brei, V. A. (2020). Impactos da COVID-19 nas organizações. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 60(6), 385-387. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020200602

Costa, B. G. dos S., Espigão, H. S., & Pinto, M. de R. (2022). Professor ou youtuber? A crise da COVID-19, as mudanças de práticas sociais e a adoção de tecnologias para o ensino remoto. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 20(3), 387-400. https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395120210044

Cowling, M., Brown, R., & Rocha, A. (2020). Did you save some cash for a rainy COVID-19 day? The crisis and SMEs. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 38(7), 593-604. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242620945102

Dağdeviren, M., Yavuz, S., & Kılınç, N. (2009). Weapon selection using the AHP and TOPSIS methods under fuzzy environment. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(4), 8143-8151. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2008.10.016

Dejardin, M., Raposo, M. L., Ferreira, J. J., Fernandes, C. I., Veiga, P. M., & Farinha, L. (2023). The impact of dynamic capabilities on SME performance during COVID-19. Review of Managerial Science, 17(5), 1703-1729. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-022-00569-x

Dess, G. G., & Robinson, R. B., Jr. (1984). Measuring organizational performance in the absence of objective measures: the case of the privately-held firm and conglomerate business unit. Strategic Management Journal, 5(3), 265-273. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250050306

Deyoung, R., Gron, A., Torna, G., & Winton, A. (2015). Risk overhang and loan portfolio decisions: small business loan supply before and during the financial crisis. Journal of Finance, 70(6), 2451-2488. https://doi.org/10.1111/jofi.12356

Dias, É., & Ramos, M. N. (2022). A educação e os impactos da COVID-19 nas aprendizagens escolares. Ensaio, 30(117), 859-870. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-40362022004000001

Dimpfl, T., & Peter, F. J. (2013). Using transfer entropy to measure information flows between financial markets. Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, 17(1), 85-102. https://doi.org/10.1515/SNDE-2012-0044/DOWNLOADASSET/SNDE_PROGS.ZIP

Dweck, E. (Coord.). (2020, maio). Impactos macroeconômicos e setoriais da COVID-19 no Brasil (Nota Técnica). Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Instituto de Economia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. https://www.ie.ufrj.br/images/IE/grupos/GIC/GIC_IE_NT_ImpactosMacroSetoriaisdaC19noBrasilvfinal22-05-2020.pdf

Dyer, J. S., Fishburn, P. C., Steuer, R. E., Wallenius, J., & Zionts, S. (1992). Multiple criteria decision making, multiattribute utility theory: the next ten years. Management Science, 38(5), 645-654. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2632682

Ecer, F. (2014). A hybrid banking websites quality evaluation model using AHP and COPRAS-G: a Turkey case. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 20(4), 758-782. https://doi.org/10.3846/20294913.2014.915596

Fasano, F., & Deloof, M. (2021). Local financial development and cash holdings in Italian SMEs. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 39(8), 781-799. https://doi.org/10.1177/02662426211011554

Fasth, J., Elliot, V., & Styhre, A. (2022). Crisis management as practice in small- and medium-sized enterprises during the first period of COVID-19. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 30(2), 161-170. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5973.12371

Fouladgar, M. M., Yazdani-Chamzini, A., Lashgari, A., Zavadskas, E. K., & Turskis, Z. (2012). Maintenance strategy selection using AHP and COPRAS under fuzzy environment. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 16(1), 85-104.

Gandhi, S., Mangla, S. K., Kumar, P., & Kumar, D. (2015). Evaluating factors in implementation of successful green supply chain management using DEMATEL: a case study. International Strategic Management Review, 3(1-2), 96-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ism.2015.05.001

Gandhi, S., Mangla, S. K., Kumar, P., & Kumar, D. (2016). A combined approach using AHP and DEMATEL for evaluating success factors in implementation of green supply chain management in Indian manufacturing industries. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 19(6), 537-561. https://doi.org/10.1080/13675567.2016.1164126

Gumus, A. T. (2009). Evaluation of hazardous waste transportation firms by using a two step fuzzy-AHP and TOPSIS methodology. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(2), 4067-4074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2008.03.013

Habachi, M., & Haddad, S. E. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on SME portfolios in morocco: evaluation of banking risk costs and the effectiveness of state support measures. Investment Management and Financial Innovations, 18(3), 260-276. https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.23

Janssen, M., van der Voort, H., & Wahyudi, A. (2017). Factors influencing big data decision-making quality. Journal of Business Research, 70, 338-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.08.007

Kaklauskas, A., Zavadskas, E. K., Raslanas, S., Ginevicius, R., Komka, A., & Malinauskas, P. (2006). Selection of low-e windows in retrofit of public buildings by applying multiple criteria method COPRAS: a Lithuanian case. Energy and Buildings, 38(5), 454-462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.08.005

Kamaldeep, S. (2021). Impact of Covid-19 on SMEs Globally. SHS Web of Conferences, 129, 01012. https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/202112901012

Kassem, A., & Hakim, L. J. (2016). Assessing critical success factors (CSFs) for a supplier in a relationship-driven B2B-market [Master Thesis]. KTH Industrial Engineering and Management, Stockholm, Sweden. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1060844/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Keršuliene, V., Zavadskas, E. K., & Turskis, Z. (2010). Selection of rational dispute resolution method by applying new step‐wise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA). Journal of Business Economics and Management, 11(2), 243-258.

Klein, V. B., & Todesco, J. L. (2021). COVID-19 crisis and SMEs responses: the role of digital transformation. Knowledge and Process Management, 28(2), 117-133. https://doi.org/10.1002/kpm.1660

Kullback, S., & Leibler, R. A. (1951). On information and sufficiency. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 22(1), 79-86. https://doi.org/10.1214/aoms/1177729694

Kurland, N. B., Baucus, M., & Steckler, E. (2022). Business and society in the age of COVID-19: introduction to the special issue. Business and Society Review, 127(S1), 147-157. https://doi.org/10.1111/basr.12265

Latham, S. (2009). Contrasting strategic response to economic recession in start-up versus established software firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 47(2), 180-201. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2009.00267.x

Lim, D. S. K., Morse, E. A., & Yu, N. (2020). The impact of the global crisis on the growth of SMEs: a resource system perspective. In International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 38(6), 492-503. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242620950159

Ma, Z., Liu, Y., & Gao, Y. (2021). Research on the impact of COVID-19 on Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises: evidence from Beijing. PLOS ONE, 16(12), e0257036. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0257036

Maffioli, A., Negri, J. A. de, Rodriguez, C. M., & Vazquez-Bare, G. (2017). Public credit programmes and firm performance in Brazil. Development Policy Review, 35(5), 675-702. https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12250

Maia, A. G., Eusébio, G. dos S., & Silveira, R. L. F. da. (2019). Can credit help small family farming? Evidence from Brazil. Agricultural Finance Review, 80(2), 212-230. https://doi.org/10.1108/AFR-10-2018-0087

Marques, L., Chimenti, P. C. P. de S., & Mendes-da-Silva, W. (2021). Aprendizados Sobre o impacto do COVID-19 nas organizações. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 25(spe), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac2021210064.por

Miklian, J., & Hoelscher, K. (2022). SMEs and exogenous shocks: a conceptual literature review and forward research agenda. In International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 40(2), 178-204. https://doi.org/10.1177/02662426211050796

Mubiru, J., & Banda, E. J. K. B. (2008). Estimation of monthly average daily global solar irradiation using artificial neural networks. Solar Energy, 82(2), 181-187. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2007.06.003

Nakhaei, J., Lale Arefi, S., Bitarafan, M., & Kildienė, S. (2016). Evaluation of light supply in the public underground safe spaces by using of COPRAS-SWARA methods. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 20(2), 198-206.

Nicolletti, M., Alem, G., Blazek, M., Fillippi, P., & Bismarchi, L. F. (2020). Business action on sustainability and resilience in the context of COVID-19. Revista de Administracao de Empresas, 60(6), 413-425. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020200605

Núñez, J. A., Cincotta, P. M., & Wachlin, F. C. (1996). Information entropy. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 64(1), 43-53. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00051604

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2021). One year of SME and entrepreneurship policy responses to COVID-19: lessons learned to “build back better”. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/one-year-of-sme-and-entrepreneurship-policy-responses-to-covid-19-lessons-learned-to-build-back-better-9a230220/

Olden, J. D., & Jackson, D. A. (2002). Illuminating the “black box”: a randomization approach for understanding variable contributions in artificial neural networks. Ecological Modelling, 154(1-2), 135-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(02)00064-9

Olden, J. D., Joy, M. K., & Death, R. G. (2004). An accurate comparison of methods for quantifying variable importance in artificial neural networks using simulated data. Ecological Modelling, 178(3-4), 389-397. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECOLMODEL.2004.03.013

Ozanne, L. K., Chowdhury, M., Prayag, G., & Mollenkopf, D. A. (2022). SMEs navigating COVID-19: The influence of social capital and dynamic capabilities on organizational resilience. Industrial Marketing Management, 104, 116-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2022.04.009

Pereira, I., & Patel, P. C. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the hours lost by self-employed racial minorities: evidence from Brazil. Small Business Economics, 58(2), 769-805. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-021-00529-x

Peter, F. J., Dimpfl, T., & Huergo, L. (2010, September 28). Using transfer entropy to measure information flows between financial markets. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1683948

Puthusserry, P., King, T., Miller, K., & Khan, Z. (2022). A typology of emerging market smes’ covid-19 response strategies: the role of tmts and organizational design. British Journal of Management, 33(2), 603-633. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12591

Rediske, G., Lorenzoni, L., Rigo, P., Siluk, J., Michels, L., & Marchesan, T. (2022). The impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the economic viability of distributed photovoltaic systems in Brazil. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 41(5), e13841. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.13841

Reis, J. G. M. dos, Machado, S. T., & Aktas, E. (2021). Food exports from Brazil to the United Kingdom: an exploratory analysis of COVID-19 impact on trade. In A. Dolgui, A. Bernard, D. Lemoine, G. von Cieminski, & D. Romero (Eds.), Advances in Production Management Systems (Vol. 631, pp. 577-584). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-85902-2_61

Rezaeiniya, N., Zolfani, S. H., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2012). Greenhouse locating based on ANP-COPRAS-G methods – an empirical study based on Iran. International Journal of Strategic Property Management, 16(2), 188-200. https://doi.org/10.3846/1648715X.2012.686459

Rezaeisaray, M., Ebrahimnejad, S., & Khalili-Damghani, K. (2016). A novel hybrid MCDM approach for outsourcing supplier selection: a case study in pipe and fittings manufacturing. Journal of Modelling in Management, 11(2), 536-559. https://doi.org/10.1108/JM2-06-2014-0045

Schepers, J., Vandekerkhof, P., & Dillen, Y. (2021). The impact of the COVID-19 crisis on growth-oriented smes: Building entrepreneurial resilience. Sustainability, 13(16), 9296. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169296

Schreiber, T. (2000). Measuring information transfer. Physical Review Letters, 85(2), 461. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.461

Serviço de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas Brasileiras. (2022). O impacto do Coronavírus nos pequenos negócios. https://datasebrae.com.br/covid/

Shannon, C. E. (1948a). A note on the concept of entropy. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27(3), 379-423.

Shannon, C. E. (1948b). The Shannon information entropy of protein sequences. The Bell System Technical Journal, 27(3), 623-656.

Sheng-Hshiung, T., Gwo-Hshiung, T., & Kuo-Ching, W. (1997). Evaluating tourist risks from fuzzy perspectives. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 796-812. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(97)00059-5

Singh, R. K., & Benyoucef, L. (2011). A fuzzy TOPSIS based approach for e-sourcing. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 24(3), 437-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engappai.2010.09.006

Singh, S., Darwish, T. K., & Potočnik, K. (2016). Measuring Organizational Performance: A Case for Subjective Measures. British Journal of Management, 27(1), 214-224. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12126

Stanujkic, D., Karabasevic, D., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2015). A framework for the selection of a packaging design based on the SWARA method. Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics, 26(2), 181-187. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.ee.26.2.8820

Sun, C. C. (2010). A performance evaluation model by integrating fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(12), 7745-7754. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2010.04.066

Valipour, A., Yahaya, N., Noor, N. M., Antuchevičienė, J., & Tamošaitienė, J. (2017). Hybrid SWARA-COPRAS method for risk assessment in deep foundation excavation project: An Iranian case study. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 23(4), 524-532. https://doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2017.1281842

Vargo, J., & Seville, E. (2011). Crisis strategic planning for SMEs: finding the silver lining. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5619-5635. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563902

Wang, J. W., Cheng, C. H., & Huang, K. C. (2009). Fuzzy Hierarchical TOPSIS for Supplier Selection. Applied Soft Computing, 9(1), 377-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2008.04.014

Wang, T. C., & Lee, H. Da. (2009). Developing a fuzzy TOPSIS approach based on subjective weights and objective weights. Expert Systems with Applications, 36(5), 8980-8985. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ESWA.2008.11.035

Wecker, A. C., Froehlich, C., & Gonçalves, M. A. (2020). Capacidades dinâmicas e estratégias para enfrentamento da crise diante da pandemia da COVID-19. Revista Gestão Organizacional, 14(1), 10-32. https://doi.org/10.22277/rgo.v14i1.5711

Yazdani, M., Alidoosti, A., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2011). Risk analysis of critical infrastructures using fuzzy COPRAS. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 24(4), 27-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2011.11517478

Yu, X., Guo, S., Guo, J., & Huang, X. (2011). Rank B2C e-commerce websites in e-alliance based on AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(4), 3550-3557. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ESWA.2010.08.143

Zambaldi, F., Aranha, F., Lopes, H., & Politi, R. (2011). Credit granting to small firms: a Brazilian case. Journal of Business Research, 64(3), 309-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2009.11.018

Zavadskas, E. K., & Kaklauskas, A. (1996). Determination of an efficient contractor by using the new method of multicriteria assessment. In D. Langford, & A. Retik (Eds.), The Organization and Management of Construction. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203477090

Zavadskas, E. K., Kaklauskas, A., Peldschus, F., & Turskis, Z. (2007). Multi-attribute assessment of road design solutions by using the COPRAS method. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, 2(4), 195-203. https://bjrbe-journals.rtu.lv/article/view/1822-427X.2007.4.195–203

Zhang, H., Gu, C. lin, Gu, L. wen, & Zhang, Y. (2011). The evaluation of tourism destination competitiveness by TOPSIS & information entropy – A case in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Tourism Management, 32(2), 443-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TOURMAN.2010.02.007

Zolfani, S. H., & Bahrami, M. (2014). Investment prioritizing in high tech industries based on SWARA-COPRAS approach. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 20(3), 534-553. https://doi.org/10.3846/20294913.2014.881435

Zolfani, S. H., Rezaeiniya, N., Aghdaie, M. H., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2012). Quality control manager selection based on AHP-COPRAS-G methods: a case in Iran. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 25(1), 72-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2012.11517495