Coopetition strategies in the Brazilian higher education

Main Article Content

Fábio Dal-Soto
Jefferson Marlon Marlon


Coopetition is a relationship strategy between firms or institutions that compete and cooperate simultaneously in different areas. Coopetition occurs in several inter-organizational arrangements. This article establishes theoretical propositions about coopetition strategies based on the Consortium of Community Universities in the South of Brazil (Consórcio das Universidades Comunitárias Gaúchas - Comung), which is formed of 15 higher education institutions (HEIs) located in the South of Brazil. This article investigates a single case with multiple analysis units conducted through in loco interviews with the President of the Comung and the managers of the HEIs, along with secondary data. The results indicate that coopetition has been used as a mechanism for market protection and to gain access to unavailable resources individually from the dynamic interactions between the Comung HEIs.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
DAL-SOTO, F.; MARLON, J. M. Coopetition strategies in the Brazilian higher education. RAE - Revista de Administracao de Empresas , [S. l.], v. 57, n. 1, p. 65–78, 2017. DOI: 10.1590/s0034-759020170106. Disponível em: Acesso em: 14 jun. 2024.


Abdallah, F., & Wadhwa, A. (2009). Collaborating with your rivals: Identifying sources of coopetitive performance. Copenhagen, Denmark: Copenhagen Business School.

Armstrong, J. S. (1997). Why can’t a game be more like a business? A review of Co-opetition by Brandenburger and Nalebuff. Journal of Marketing, 61(2), 92-95. doi:10.2307/1251833

Axelrod, R., & Hamilton, W. D. (1981). The Evolution of Cooperation. Science, 2, 1390-1396. Retrieved from

Azevedo, C. E. F., Oliveira, L. G. L., Gonzales, R. K., & Abdalla, M. M. (2013). A estratégia de triangulação: Objetivos, possibilidades, limitações e proximidades com o pragmatismo. In: IV Encontro de Estudo e Pesquisa em Administração e Contabilidade. Brasília, DF: Nov. 3-5.

Bardin, L. (2011). Análise de conteúdo. São Paulo, SP: Edições 70.

Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120. doi: 10.1177/014920639101700108

Baumard, P. (2008). Learning strategies in coopetitive environments. In Le Roy, F. & Yami, S. (Eds.), Coopetition: Winning strategy for the XXIst century (125-145). Northampton, USA: Edward Edgar Publishing.

Bengtsson, M., Eriksson, J., & Wincent, J. (2010). Co-opetition dynamics – an outline for further inquiry. Competitiveness Review, 20(2), 194-214. doi:10.1108/10595421011029893

Bengtsson, M., & Kock, S. (1999). Cooperation and competition in relationships between competitors in business networks. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 14(3), 178-194. doi:10.1108/08858629910272184

Bengtsson, M., & Kock, S. (2000). “Coopetition” in business networks – to cooperate and compete simultaneously. Industrial Marketing Management, 29(5), 411-426. doi:10.1016/S0019-8501(99)00067-X

Bengtsson, M., & Kock, S. (2014). Coopetition – Quo vadis? Past accomplishments and future challenges. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(2), 180-188. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2014.02.015

Bleeke, J., & Ernst, D. (2001). Colaborando para competir. In: Mintzberg, H. & Quinn, J.B. (Eds.), O processo da estratégia. (3rd. ed.) Porto Alegre, RS: Bookman.

Brandenburger, A. M., & Nalebuff, B. J. (1995). The right game: Use game theory to shape strategy. Harvard Business Review, 73(4). Retrieved from

Burt, R.S. (1992). Structural holes: The social structure of competition. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press.

Chien, T.-H., & Peng, T. J. (2005). Competition and cooperation intensity in a network: A case study in Taiwan simulator industry. Journal of American Academy of Business, 7(2), 150-155.

Chin, K. S., Chan, B. L., & Lam, P. K. (2008). Identifying and prioritizing critical success factors for coopetition strategy. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 108(4), 437-454. doi:10.1108/02635570810868326

Choi, P. (2005). The nature of co-opetition: Literature review and propositions. American Marketing Association, Educators’ Conference Proceedings, 16, 105-106.

Choi, P., Garcia, R., & Friedrich, C. (2009). Under what conditions can coopetition develop?: An investigation into coopetition formation. American Marketing Association, Winter, 13-14.

Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (Suppl.), S95-S120.

Collis, J., & Hussey, R. (2005). Pesquisa em administração: Um guia prático para alunos de graduação e pós-graduação. (2nd ed.) Porto Alegre, RS: Bookman.

Consórcio das Universidades Comunitárias Gaúchas. (2015). O maior sistema de educação superior em atuação no Rio Grande do Sul. Retrieved from Comung Web site:

Crisan, P. (2013). Coopetition structural dynamics. Managerial Challenges of the Contemporary Society, 5, 81-86.

Cygler, J., & Sroka, W. (2016). The boundaries of coopetition: A case study of polish companies operating in the high-tech sector. In Ateljevic, J., & Trivic, J. (Eds). Economic Development and Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies: issues, obstacles and perspectives. (253-269). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Dagnino, G. B., & Padula, G. (2002). Coopetition Strategy: A new kind of interfirm dynamics for value creation. In II Annual Conference of EURAM. Stockholm: May 9-11, 2002.

Das., T. K., & Teng, B. S. (1998). Resource and risk management in the strategic alliance making process. Journal of Management, 24(1), 21-42. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(99)80052-X

Deitz, G., Tokman, M., Richey, R. G., & Morgan, R. M. (2010). Joint venture stability and cooperation: Direct, indirect and contingent effects of resource complementarity and trust. Industrial Marketing Management, 39(5), 862-873. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.01.003

Denzin, N. (1978). The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods. (2nd ed.) New York, USA: Mc Graw-Hill.

Dimaggio, P., & Powell, W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48(2), 147-160.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.

Eriksson, E. (2008). Achieving suitable coopetition in buyer-supplier relationships: The case of AstraZeneca. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 15(4), 425-454. doi:10.1080/15470620802325674

Flick, U. (2009). Desenho da pesquisa qualitativa. Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.

Fu., F. L., Wu, Y. L., & Ho, H. C., (2007). The design of coopetitive pedagogy in an integrated web-based learning model. In: Hui, K-C., Pan, Z., Chung, R.C-C., Wang, C.C.L., Jin, X., Gobel, S., & Li, E.C.-L. (Eds), Technologies for e-Learning and digital entertainment (293-304). Berlin, Germany: Berlin Heidelberg.

Galvagno, M., & Garaffo, F. (2007). The promise of coopetition as a field of research. In: EURAM- The European Academy of Management 7th Annual Conference. Paris, France: May 16-19.

Gioia, D. A., & Thomas, J. B. (1996). Identity, image and issue interpretation: Sensemaking during strategic change in academia. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(3), 370-403. doi:10.2307/2393936

Gnyawali, D. R., He, J., & Madhavan, R. (2006). Impact of co-opetition on firm competitive behavior: An empirical examination. Journal of Management, 32(4), 507-530. doi:10.1177/0149206305284550

Gnyawali, D. R., & Madhavan, R. (2001). Cooperative networks and competitive dynamics: A structural embeddedness perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(3), 431-445.

Gnyawali, D. R, & Park, R. (2011). Co-opetition between giants: Collaboration with competitors for technological innovation. Research Policy, 40(5), 650-663. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2011.01.009

Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360-1380. doi:10.1086/225469

Gulati, R. (1998). Alliances and networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19(4), 293-317. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0266(199804)19:4<293::aidsmj982>;2-m

Gulati, R., Nohria, N., & Zaheer, A. (2000). Strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 203-215. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0266(200003)21:3<203::aid-smj102>;2-k

Hagberg-Andersson, Å. (2006). Does adaptation pay off? Industrial Marketing Management, 35(2), 202-209. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.02.004

Hamel, G. (1991). Competition for competence and interpartner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12(1), 83-103. doi:10.1002/smj.4250120908

Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. (1989). Strategic intent. Harvard Business Review, 67(3). Retrieved from

Hamel, G., & Prahalad, C. K. (1994). Competing for the future. Harvard Business Review, 72(2). Retrieved from

Hung, S.-W., & Chang, C.-C. (2012). A co-opetition perspective of technology alliance governance modes. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 24(7), 679-696. doi:10.1080/09537325.2012.705120

Hunt, S., & Morgan, R. M. (1995). The comparative advantage theory of competition. Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 1-15. doi:10.2307/1252069

Jarillo, J. C. (1998). On strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, 9(1), 31-41. doi:10.1002/smj.4250090104

Jarillo, J. C. (1993). Strategical networks: Creating the borderless organization. Oxford, UK: Butterworth & Heinemann.

Jarzabkowski, P. (2003). Strategic practices: An activity theory perspective on continuity and change. Journal of Management Studies, 40(1), 23-55. doi:10.1111/1467-6486.t01-1-00003

Kanter, R. M. (1994). Collaborative advantage: The art of alliances. Harvard Business Review, 72(4). Retrieved from

Khanna, T., Gulati, R., & Nahria, N. (1998). The dynamics of learning alliances: Competition, cooperation and relative scope. Strategic

Management Journal, 19(3), 193-210. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0266(199803)19:3<193::aid-smj949>;2-c

Luo, Y. (2005). Toward coopetition within a multinational enterprise: A perspective from foreign subsidiaries. Journal of World Business, 40(1),71-90. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2004.10.006

Luo, Y. (2007). A coopetition perspective of global competition. Journal of World Business, 42(2), 129-144. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2006.08.007

Luo, X., Slotegraaf, R. J., & Pan, X. (2006). Cross-functional “coopetition”: The simultaneous role of cooperation and competition within firms. Journal of Marketing, 70(2), 67-80. doi:10.1509/jmkg.70.2.67

M’Chirgui, Z. (2005).The economics of the smart card industry: Towards coopetitive strategies. Economic Innovation New Technology, 14(6), 455-477. doi:10.1080/1043859042000304070

Mendoza, M. (2014). Samsung begins production of A9 chip for Apple iPhone 7. Tech Times. Retrieved from

Muijs, D., & Rumyantseva, N. (2014). Coopetition in education: Collaborating in a competitive environment. Journal of Educational Change, 15(1), 1-18. doi:10.1007/s10833-013-9223-8

Muijs, D., Ainscow, M., Chapman, C., & West, M. (2011). Collaboration and Networking in education. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Nash, J. (1950). The bargaining problem. Econometrica, 18(2), 155-162. doi:10.2307/1907266

Okura, M. (2007). Coopetitive strategies of Japanese insurance firms: A game-theory approach. International Studies of Management & Organisation, 37(2), 53-69. doi:10.2753/IMO0020-8825370203

Osarenkhoe, A. (2010). A study of inter-firm dynamics between competition and cooperation – A coopetition strategy. Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, 17(3), 201-221. doi:10.1057/dbm.2010.23

Padula, G., & Dagnino, G. B. (2007). Untangling the rise of coopetition: The intrusion of competition in a cooperative game structure. International Studies of Management & Organization, 37(2), 32-52.

Park, B.-J., Srivastava, M. K., & Gnyawali, D. R. (2014). Impact of coopetition in the alliance portfolio and coopetition experience on firm innovation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 26(8), 893-907. doi:10.1080/09537325.2014.913016

Pittaway, L., Robertson, M., Munir, K, Denyer, D., & Neely, A. (2004). Networking and innovation: A systematic review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 5-6(3-4),137-168. doi:10.1111/j.1460-8545.2004.00101.x

Porter, M. (1980). Competitive strategy. New York, USA: Free Press.

Porter, M. (1985). Competitive advantage. New York, USA: Free Press.

Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, G. (1990). The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68(3). Retrieved from

Provan, K. G., & Kenis, P. (2007). Modes of network governance: Structure, management, and effectiveness. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2), 229-252. doi:10.1093/jopart/mum015

Ritala, P., & Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P. (2009). What’s in it for me? Creating and appropriating value in innovation-related coopetition. Technovation, 29(12), 819-828. doi:10.1016/j.technovation.2009.07.002

Ritala, P., & Weggman, A. (2011). Coopetition in the global book industry: The case of’s evolution. In: 21st Nordic workshop on interorganizational research. Vaasa, Finland, August 15-17.

Roy, P., & Yami, S. (2009). Managing strategic innovation through coopetition. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 8(1), 61-73. doi:10.1504/IJESB.2009.024105

Sjogren, J., & Fay, J. (2002). Cost issues in online learning: Using “coopetition” to advantage. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 34(3), 53-57. doi:10.1080/00091380209601856

Snider, M. (Dec. 2014). Sony’s cloud video game service coming to Samsung TVs. USA Today Retrieved from

Stake, R. (1998). Case studies. In: Denzin, N., & Lincoln, Y. (Eds). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage.

Stone, B. (2014). A loja de tudo: Jeff Bezos e a era da Amazon. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Intrínseca.

Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, USA: Sage.

Tiessen, J. H., & Linton, J. D. (2000). The JV dilemma: Cooperating and competing in joint ventures. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 17(3), 203-215. doi:10.1111/j.1936-4490.2000.tb00221.x

Walley, K. (2007). Coopetition: An introduction to the subject and an agenda for research. International Studies of Management & Organization, 37(2), 11-31. doi:10.2753/IMO0020-8825370201

Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2), 171-180. doi:10.1002/smj.4250050207

Williamson, O. (1985). The economics of institutions of capitalism: Firms, markets, relational contracting. New York, USA: Free Press.

Yami, S., & Le Roy, F. (2010). Stratégies de coopétition: Rivaliser et coopérer simultanément. Bruxelles, Belgium: De Boeck.

Artigos mais lidos escritos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)