Main Article Content
This article investigates the cultural politics of entrepreneurship as a form of opposition to gentrification in Oakland, California. Building on Watkins and Caldwell’s (2004) foundational work, I examine the relationship between political projects–– resisting gentrification, racial and economic disparities––and the cultural work of signifying a community’s continued presence amidst displacement and glorification of newcomers. Based on 30 interviews with employees of food justice non-profit organizations, social enterprises, and government agencies, I argue that activists promote food-based entrepreneurship to create employment and business opportunities for long- term residents that enables them to stay in their hometown. In doing so, the contributions of long-standing communities to Oakland’s diverse food cultures are highlighted. However, property values are rising rapidly that even these opportunities cannot ensure that long-term communities remain. For this reason, I conclude by offering examples of direct action and policy advocacy that can supplement these entrepreneurial approaches.
A RAE compromete-se a contribuir com a proteção dos direitos intelectuais do autor. Nesse sentido:
- adota a licença Creative Commoms BY (CC-BY) em todos os textos que publica, exceto quando houver indicação de específicos detentores dos direitos autorais e patrimoniais;
- adota software de detecção de similaridades;
- adota ações de combate ao plagio e má conduta ética, alinhada às diretrizes do Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
Abarca, M. (2006). Voices in the kitchen: Views of food and the world from working-class Mexican and Mexican-American women. College Station, USA: Texas A&M Press.
Alkon, A. (2012). Black, white and green: Farmers markets, race and the green economy. Athens, GA: UGA Press.
Alkon, A., & Agyeman, J. (2011). Cultivating food justice: Race, class, and sustainability. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.
Alkon, A., & Cadji, J. (2015). One day, the white people are going to want these houses again: Understanding gentrification through the North Oakland farmers market. In S. Zavetoski, & J. Agyeman (Eds.), Incomplete streets. New York, USA: Routledge.
Alkon, A., & Guthman, J. (2017). The new food activism: Opposition, cooperation, and collective action. Berkeley, USA: UC Press.
Allen, P. (1999). Reweaving the food security safety net: Mediating entitlement and entrepreneurship. Agriculture and Human Values, 16(2), 117-129. doi:10.1023/A:1007593210496
Allen, P. (2008). Mining for justice in the food system: Perceptions, practices, and possibilities. Agriculture and Human Values, 25(2), 157-161. doi:10.1007/s10460-008-9120-6
Allen, P., Fitzsimmons, M., Goodman, M. K., & Warner, K. (2003). Shifting plates in the agrifood landscape: The tectonics of alternative agrifood initiatives in California. Journal of Rural Studies, 19(1), 61-75. doi:10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00047-5
Applied Survey Research. (2015). San Francisco homeless point-in-time count and survey. Recuperado de http://www.appliedsurveyresearch.org/homelessness-reports/2014/8/13/san-francisco-homelesshomeless-point-in-time-count-and-survey
Belasco, W. (1989). Appetite for change: How the counterculture took on the food industry. Ithaca, USA: Cornell University Press.
Bondi, L., & Laurie, N. (2005). Introduction. Antipode, 37(3), 393-401. doi:10.1111/j.0066-4812.2005.00503.x
Brown, S., & Getz, C. (2008). Privatizing farm worker justice: Regulating labor through voluntary certification and labeling. Geoforum, 39(3), 1184-1196. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2007.01.002
Buck, D., Getz, C., & Guthman, J. (1997). From farm to table: The organic vegetable commodity chain of Northern California. Sociologia Ruralis, 37(1), 3-20. doi:10.1111/1467-9523.00033
Burnett, K. (2014). Commodifying poverty: Gentrification and consumption in Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside. Urban Geography, 35(2), 157-176. doi:10.1080/02723638.2013.867669
Clarke, K. (2014). Brokers give gentrification a push by opening coffee shops in Harlem. Daily News. Recuperado de http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/real-estate/latte-change-harlemarticle-1.1903758
Cohen, N., & Reynolds, K. (2016). Beyond the kale. Athens, GA: UGA Press.
Crouch, P. (2012). Evolution or gentrification: Do urban farms lead to higher rents? Grist. Recuperado de http://grist.org/food/evolutionor-gentrification-do-urban-farms-lead-to-higher-rents/
Dean, A. B. (2014). Michael Pollan: Our food is dishonestly priced. Moyers and Company. Recuperado de http://billmoyers.com/2014/02/03/michael-pollan-our-food-is-dishonestly-priced/
Dimitri, C., & Oberholtzer, L. (2009). Marketing US organic foods: Recent trends from farms to consumers. Economic Information Bulletin No. (EIB-58). Recuperado de http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/58615/2/eib58.pdf
Fairlie, R. W., & Robb, A. M. (2008). Race and entrepreneurial success. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.
Gilbert, J., Sharp, G., & Felin, S. (2002). The loss and persistence of black-owned farms and farmland: A review of the research literature and its implications. Southern Rural Sociology, 18(2), 1-30.
Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1999). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York, USA: Routledge.
Guthman, J. (2008). Bringing good food to others: Investigating the subjects of alternative food practice. Cultural Geographies, 15(4), 431-447. doi:10.1177/1474474008094315
Hackworth, J., & Smith, N. (2001). The changing state of gentrification. Journal of Economic and Social Geography, 92(4), 464-477. doi:10.1111/1467-9663.00172
Harrison, J. L. (2008). Lessons learned from pesticide drift: A call to bring production agriculture, farm labor, and social justice back into agrifood research and activism. Agriculture and Human Values, 25(2), 163-167. doi:10.1007/s10460-008-9121-5
Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neoliberalism. Oxford, UK. Oxford University Press.
Hyde, Z. (2014). Omnivorous gentrification: Restaurant reviews and neighborhood change in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver. City & Community, 13(4), 341-359. doi:10.1111/cico.12088
Jefferies. (2012). Industry update: Trouble in Aisle 5. Recuperado de http://www.jefferies.com/CMSFiles/Jefferies.com/files/PressReleases/2012/TroubleinAisle5_062712.pdf
Jones, V. (2008). The green collar economy: How one solution can fix our two biggest problems. New York, USA: Harper One.
Kohli, S. (2015). Developers have found the secret sauce for gentrifying. Quartz. Recuperado de https://qz.com/408986/developers-havefigured-out-the-secret-sauce-to-gentrification/
Larner, W., & Craig, D. (2005). After neoliberalism? Community action and local partnerships in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Antipode, 37(3), 402-424. doi:10.1111/j.0066-4812.2005.00504.x
Lees, L., Slater, T., & Wyly, E. (2007). Gentrification. New York, USA: Routledge. Markham, L. (2014). Gentrification and the urban garden. The New Yorker. Recuperado de http://www.newyorker.com/business/currency/gentrification-and-the-urban-garden
Massey, B. (2017). DC’s urban farms wrestle with gentrification and displacement. Civil Eats. Recuperado de http://civileats.com/2017/02/27/d-c-s-urban-farms-wrestle-with-gentrificationand-displacement/
McClintock, N. (2011). From industrial garden to food desert: Demarcated devaluation in the flatlands of Oakland, California. In A. Alkon, & J. Agyeman (Eds.), Cultivating food justice: Race, class and sustainability (pp. 89-120). Cambridge, USA: The MIT Press.
McNeil, M. (2016). US organic sales post new record of $43.3 Billion in 2015. Organic Trade Association. Recuperado de https://www.ota.com/news/press-releases/19031
Meyers, J., & Sbicca, J. (2015). Bridging good food and good jobs: From secession to confrontation within alternative food movement politics. Geoforum, 61, 17-26. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.02.003
Meyers, J. S. M. (2005). Workplace democracy comes of age: Economic stability, growth, and workforce diversity. In V. Smith (Ed.), Worker participation: Current research and future trends (Research in the Sociology of Work, Vol. 16, pp. 205- 237). Bradford, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Minkoff-Zern, L., Peluso, N., Sowerwine, J., & Getz, C. (2011). Race and regulation: Asian immigrants in California agriculture. In A. Alkon, & J. Agyeman (Eds.), Cultivating food justice: Race, class, and sustainability (pp. 65-86). Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.
Minkoff-Zern, L., & Sloat, S. (2016). A new era of civil rights? Latino immigrant farmers and exclusion at the United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture and Human Values, 34(3), 631-643. doi:10.1007/s10460-016-9756-6
Nelson, R. (n. d.). 35 reasons you need to move to Oakland. Movoto. Recuperado de http://www.movoto.com/guide/oakland-ca/movingto-oakland/
Ospina, T. (2015). Racially profiled, drummers make noise about gentrification in Oakland. Recuperado de http://blog.oaklandxings.com/2015/10/racially-profiled-drummers-make-noise-aboutgentrification-in-oakland/
Polanyi, K. (2001). The great transformation. New York, USA: Beacon. Policy Link. (2016). Oakland’s Displacement Crisis as Told by the Numbers. Recuperado de http://www.policylink.org/sites/default/files/PolicyLink%20Oakland's%20Displacement%20Crisis%20by%20the%20numbers.pdf
Quastel, N. (2009). Political ecologies of gentrification. Urban Geography, 30(7), 694-725. doi:10.2747/0272-3618.104.22.1684
Ray, K. (2016). The ethnic restauranteur. New York, USA: Bloomsbury. Rose, N. (1999). Powers of freedom: Reframing political thought. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.
Shaw, A. R. (2015). Whites who gentrified Oakland are calling the police on innocent Black residents. Rolling Out. Recuperado de http://rollingout.com/2015/10/16/whites-gentrified-oakland-callingpolice-innocent-black-residents/
Shaw, W. S. (2007). Cities of Whiteness. Malden, USA: Blackwell. Slater, T. (2006). The eviction of critical perspectives from gentrification research. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 30(4), 737-757. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2006.00689.x
Smith, N. (2008). Uneven development: Nature, capital and the production of space. Athens, GA: UGA Press.
Statista. (2015). Total retail and food services sales in the United States from 1992 to 2015. Recuperado de https://www.statista.com/statistics/197569/annual-retail-and-food-services-sales-in-the-ussince-1992/
Strom, S. (2015, August 24). Small food brands, big successes. New York Times. Recuperado de https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/26/dining/start-up-food-business-changing-appetites.html
Sullivan, D. M., & Shaw, S. C. (2011). Retail gentrification and race: The case of Alberta Street in Portland, Oregon. Urban Affairs Review, 47(3), 413-432. doi:10.1177/1078087410393472
Trotter, G. (2016). As tastes shift, Big Food devours smaller, healthfocused companies to survive. Chicago Tribune. Recuperado de lhttp://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-big-food-gobblessmall-companies-0515-biz-20160514-story.html
United States Department of Agriculture. (2014). New data reflects the continued demand for farmers markets. Recuperado de https://www.usda.gov/media/press-releases/2014/08/04/new-data-reflectscontinued-demand-farmers-markets
Watkins, J., & Caldwell, M. (2004). The cultural politics of food and eating. New York, USA: Wiley.
Williams-Forson, P. (2006). Building houses out of chicken legs. Chapel Hill, USA: UNC Press.
Zukin, S. (1995). The culture of cities. New York, USA: Blackwell.