High-performance level and technology management among winery firms in the wine industry cluster of Baja California: A fsQCA approach

Main Article Content

José Carlos Rodríguez
Mario Gómez
María Aline Manzo


This paper analyzes how wineries in the wine industry cluster of Baja California in Mexico achieve a high-performance level and engage in technology management. The study uses the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis approach to inquire into the necessary and sufficient conditions for firms in this industry cluster to attain a high-performance level. Our research hypothesis suggests that the presence of some resources (conditions) in the wine industry cluster of Baja California is a necessary and sufficient condition (set-theoretic relations) to achieve a high-performance level (outcome). Accordingly, this study examines the causal complexity observed in
set-theoretic relations and high-performance levels in the wine industry cluster of Baja California. An important finding in this research is that winery firms in Baja California do not need to develop interdependent innovations to achieve a high-performance level. However, research and development efforts, good supplier relations, and
production capacity are necessary conditions to achieve a high performance level in this cluster.


Download data is not yet available.






Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
RODRÍGUEZ, J. C.; GÓMEZ, M.; MANZO, M. A. High-performance level and technology management among winery firms in the wine industry cluster of Baja California: A fsQCA approach. RAE - Revista de Administracao de Empresas , [S. l.], v. 61, n. 2, p. 1–13, 2021. DOI: 10.1590/S0034-759020210204. Disponível em: https://periodicos.fgv.br/rae/article/view/82278. Acesso em: 9 dec. 2023.


Alpízar-Padilla, V. A., & Maldonado-Ávalos, M. M. (2009). Integración de la ruta del vino en Querétaro: Un producto innovador. Quivera, 11(2), 97-109.

Asheim, B., Smith, H. L., & Oughton, C. (2011). Regional innovation systems: Theory, empirics and policy. Regional Studies, 45(7), 875-891. doi: 10.1080/00343404.2011.596701

Bell, G. G. (2005). Clusters, networks, and firm innovativeness. Strategic Management Journal, 26(3), 287-295. doi: 10.1002/smj.448

Berger, E. S. C. (2016). Is qualitative comparative analysis an emerging method? Structured literature review and bibliometric analysis of QCA applications in business and management research. In E. S. C. Berger, & A. Kuckertz (Eds.), Complexity in entrepreneurship, innovation and technology research. Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-27108-8

Bringas, N. L., & González, J. I. I. (2004). El turismo alternativo: Una opción para el desarrollo local en dos comunidades indígenas de Baja California. Economía, Sociedad y Territorio, 4(15), 551-588. doi: 10.22136/est002004421

Camagni, R., & Capello, R. (2013). Regional innovation patterns and the EU regional policy reform: Toward smart innovation policies. Growth and Change, 44(2), 355-389. doi: 10.1111/grow.12012

Consejo Mexicano Vitivinícola. (2015). El mercado del vino en México. Retrieved from https://www.oemv.es/esp/el-mercado-del-vino-en-mexico-2010-277k.php

Consejo Mexicano Vitivinícola. (2018). Le vin et la gastronomie mexicaine. Retrieved from http://uvayvino.org.mx/le-vin-et-la-gastronomie-mexicaine-a-loiv/

Cooke, P. (1992). Regional innovation systems: Competitive regulation in the new Europe. Geoforum, 23(3), 365- 382. doi: 10.1016/0016-7185(92)90048-9

Cooke, P. (1998). Introduction: Origins of the concept. In H. J. Braczyk, P. Cooke, & M. Heidenreich (Eds.), Regional innovation systems: The role of governances in a globalized world. London, UK, and New York, USA: Routledge.

Cotte, A., & Pardo, C.I. (2013). Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA): An application for the industry. Quality & Quantity, 47, 1315-1321. doi: 10.1007/s11135-011-9592-0

Covarrubias, J., & Thach, L. (2015). Wines of Baja México: A qualitative study examining viniculture, enology and marketing prices. Wine Economics and Policy, 4(2), 110-115. doi: 10.1016/j.wep.2015.11.001

Cruz, S., & Teixeira, C. (2010). The evolution of the cluster literature: Shedding light on the regional studies – regional science debate. Regional Studies, 44(10), 1263-1288. doi: 10.1080/00343400903234670

Diario Oficial de la Federación. (2018). Ley de fomento a la industria vitivinícola. Retrieved from https://dof.vlex.com.mx/vid/decreto-expide-ley-fomento-724081749

Edquist, C. (1997). Systems of innovation: Technologies, institutions and organizations. London, UK: Pinter.

El Conocedor. (2016). El mercado del vino mexicano. Retrieved from http://revistaelconocedor.com/el-mercado-del-vino-mexicano/

El Universal. (2018a). Lo que tienes que saber sobre la legislación del vino mexicano. Retrieved from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/menu/lo-que-tienes-que-saber-sobre-la-legislacion-del-vino-mexicano

El Universal. (2018b). Panorama mundial del vino y oportunidades para México. Retrieved from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulo/menu/2017/05/1/mexico-toma-cada-vez-mas-vino

Fiss, P. C. (2007). A set-theoretic approach to organizational configurations. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1180-1198. doi: 10.5465/amr.2007.26586092

Fiss, P. C. (2011). Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 393-420. doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.60263120

Foray, D., & Ark, B. Van. (2007). Smart specialization in a truly integrated research area is the key to attracting more R&D to Europe. Knowledge Economists Policy Brief No. 1. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/invest-in-research/pdf/download_en/policy_brief1.pdf

Foray, D., Goddard, J., Beldarrain, X. G., Landabaso, M., McCann, P., Morgan, K., Nauwelaers, C., & Ortega-Argilés, R. (2012). Guide to research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi:10.2776/65746

Freeman, C. (1987). Technology policy and economic performance. London, UK: Pinter.

García-Fernández, A., Meraz-Ruiz, L., & Díaz-Gómez, E. R. (2018). Wine tourism and wine marketing in family-owned micro wineries in Guadalupe Valley, México. Rosa Dos Ventos, 10(4), 690-711. doi: 10.18226/21789061.v10i4p690

Góngora-Rosado, M. A. (2016). Propuestas de prácticas sustentables en la industria vitivinícola de Baja California México (Master’s Thesis, El Colegio de la Frontera Norte).

González-Andrade, S. (2015). The economic value chain of wine in Baja California, Mexico. Estudios Fronterizos, 16(32), 163-193.

Harmaakorpi, V. (2006). Regional development platform method (RDPM) as a tool for regional innovation policy. European Planning Studies, 14(8), 1093-1112. doi: 10.1080/09654310600852399

Huarng, H. K., & Roig-Tierno, N. (2016). Qualitative comparative analysis, crisp and fuzzy sets in knowledge and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 69(11), 5181-5186. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.04.109

Industrial News Baja California. (2018). Se impulsa nueva Ley del Vino, la producción e infraestructura nacional. Retrieved from https://www.industrialnewsbc.com/2018/06/28/impulsa nueva ley del vino, la producción e infraestructura nacional

Jauhiainen, J. S. (2009). Regional innovation policies in Finland: Towards convergence and/or mismatch? Regional Studies, 42(7), 1031-1045. doi: 10.1080/00343400701543140

Leavy, B. (1996). Outsourcing strategy and a learning dilemma. Production and Inventory Management Journal, 37(4), 50-54.

Leviäkangas, P., Aapaoja, A., Kinnunen, T., Pilli-Sihvola, E., Hautala, R., & Zulkarnain. (2014). The Finnish road weather business ecosystem: Turning societal benefits into business and the other way round. Engineering Management Research, 3(1), 56-67. doi: 10.5539/emr.v3n1p56

López, M. C., House, L., & Trejo-Pech, O. C. (2010). Globalization in the wine industry and the case of Baja California, México. 20th Annual World Food and Agribusiness Forum and Symposium, Boston, USA.

Lundvall, B. A. (1992). National systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London, UK: Pinter.

Malerba, F. (2002). Sectoral systems of innovation and production. Research Policy, 31(2), 247-264. doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(01)00139-1

Martin, R. L., & Sunley, P. (2003). Deconstructing clusters: Chaotic concept or policy panacea? Journal of Economic Geography, 3(1), 5-35. doi: 10.1093/jeg/3.1.5

Marx, A., Rihoux, B., & Ragin, C. C. (2014). The origins, development, and application of qualitative comparative analysis: The first 25 years. European Political Science Review, 6(1), 115-142. doi: 10.1017/s1755773912000318

Maskell, P. (2001). Towards a knowledge-based theory of the geographical cluster. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10(4), 921-943. doi: 10.4324/9781351159203-18

McCann, P., & Ortega-Argilés, R. (2013). Smart specialization, regional growth and applications to European Union cohesion policy. Regional Studies, 49(8), 1291-1302. doi: 10.1080/00343404.2013.799769

Mendel, J. M., & Korjani, M. M. (2012). Charles Ragin’s fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) used for linguistic summarizations. Information Sciences, 202, 1-23. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2517981

Mendel, J. M., & Korjani, M. M. (2013). Theoretical aspects of fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Information Sciences, 237, 137-161. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2013.02.048

Meraz-Ruiz, L. (2015). Estrategias de competitividad de las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas vinícolas de la Ruta del Vino del Valle de Guadalupe, Mexicali (Master’s Tesis, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California).

Meraz-Ruiz, L., & Ruiz-Vega, A. V. (2016). El enoturismo de Baja California, México: Un análisis de su oferta y comparación con la región vitivinícola de La Rioja, España. Revista Investigaciones Turísticas, 12, 73-98. doi: 10.14198/inturi2016.12.04

Milenio. (2018). Vino mexicano busca llegar a más naciones. Retrieved from http://www.milenio.com/negocios/vino-mexicano-busca-llegar-a-mas-naciones

Moore, J. F. (1993). Predators and prey: A new ecology of competition. Harvard Business Review, 71(3), 75-86.

Moore, J. F. (2006). Business ecosystems and the view from the firm. The Antitrust Bulletin, 25, 31-75. doi: 10.1177/0003603x0605100103

Nelson, R. R. (1993). National innovation systems: A comparative analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

OIV. (2010). Definition of vitivinicultural “terroir”. International Organization of Vine and Wine Resolutions. Resolution OIV/VITI 333/2010.

Padmore, T., & Gibson, H. (1998). Modelling systems of innovation II: A framework for industrial cluster analysis in regions. Research Policy, 26(6), 625-641. doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(97)00038-3

Parente, T. C., & Federo, R. (2019). Qualitative comparative analysis: Justifying a neo-configurational approach in management research. RAUSP Management Journal, 54(4), 399-412. doi: 10.1108/RAUSP-05-2019-0089

Peppard, J., & Rylander, A. (2006). From value chain to value network: Insights for mobile operators. European Management Journal, 24(2-3), 128-141. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2006.03.003

Porter, M. E. (1997). Competitive strategy. Measuring Business Excellence, 1(2), 12-17. doi: 10.1108/eb025476

Porter, M. E. (1998a). Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, 76(6), 77-90.

Porter, M. E. (1998b). The Adam Smith address: Location, clusters and the “new” microeconomics of competition. Business Economics, 33(1), 7-13.

Porter, M. E. (2000a). Location, competition and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic Development Quarterly, 14(1), 15-34. doi: 10.1177/089124240001400105

Porter, M. E. (2000b). Locations, clusters and company strategy. In G. Clark, M. Feldman, & M. Gertier (Eds.), Oxford handbook of economic geography. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Porter, M. E. (2008). The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard Business Review, 86, 78-93.

Porter, M. E., & Stern, S. (2001). Innovation: Location matters. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42(4), 28-36.

Quiñónez-Ramírez, J. J., Bringas-Rábago, N., & Barrios-Prieto, C. (2011). La Ruta del Vino de Baja California. Secretaría de Turismo del Estado de Baja California.

Radaelli, C. M., & Wagemann, C. (2019). What did I leave out? Omitted variables in regression and qualitative comparative analysis. European Political Science, 18, 275-290. doi: 10.1057/s41304-017-0142-7

Ragin, C. C. (2000). Fuzzy-Set social science. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

Ragin, C. C. (2006). User´s guide to fuzzy-set/ qualitative comparative analysis 2.0. Department of Sociology, The University of Arizona.

Ragin, C. C. (2008). Redesigning social inquiry: Fuzzy sets and beyond. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

Ragin, C. C., & Sonnett, J. (2004). Between complexity and parsimony: Limited diversity, counterfactual cases, and comparative analysis. In S. Kropp, & M. Minkenberg (Eds.), Vergleichen in der Politikwissenschaft VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. doi: 10.1007/978-3-322-80441-9_9

Rihoux, B., & Ragin, C. C. (2009). Configurational comparative methods. Thousand Oaks, USA/New Delhi, India/London, UK/Singapore: Sage.

Rinkinen, S., & Harmaakorpi, V. (2018). The business ecosystem concept in innovation policy context: Building a conceptual framework. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 31(3), 333-349. doi: 10.1080/13511610.2017.1300089

Rodríguez, J. C., Gómez, M., & Ramírez, K. N. (2015). Competitive advantage in knowledge-based firms of emerging economies: Evidence from Mexico. International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, 7(1), 39-58. doi: 10.1504/ijgsb.2015.069035

Roelandt, T. J. A., & Hertog, P. den. (1999). Cluster analysis and cluster-based policy making: The state of the art. Boosting innovation: The cluster approach. OECD Proceedings. Paris, France: OECD.

Roig-Tierno, N., González-Cruz, T. F., & Llopis-Martínez, J. (2017). An overview of qualitative comparative analysis: A bibliometric analysis. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 2(1), 15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jik.2016.12.002

Roig-Tierno, N., Huarng, K. H., & Ribeiro-Soriano, D. (2016). Qualitative comparative analysis: Crisp and fuzzy sets in business and management. Journal of Business Research, 69(4), 1261-1264. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.10.089

Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2010). Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and fuzzy-sets: Agenda for a research approach and a data analysis technique. Comparative Sociology, 9(3), 376-396. doi: 10.1163/156913210x12493538729838

Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2012). Set-Theoretic methods for the social sciences: A guide to qualitative comparative analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Secretaria de Fomento Agropecuario. (2011). Estudio estadístico sobre producción de uva en Baja California. Gobierno del Estado de Baja California/Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. Recuperado de http://www.nacionmulticultural.unam.mx/empresasindigenas/docs/1873.pdf

Smits, R., & Kuhlmann, S. (2004). The rise of systemic instruments in innovation policy. International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy, 1(1-2), 4-32. doi: 10.1504/ijfip.2004.004621

Trejo-Pech, C. O., Arellano-Sada, R., Coelho, A. M., & Weldon, R. N. (2012). Is the Baja California, Mexico, wine industry a cluster? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 94(2), 569-575. doi: 10.1093/ajae/aar080

Vis, B. (2012). The comparative advantages of fsQCA and regression analysis for moderately large-n analyses. Sociological Methods & Research, 41(1), 168-198. doi: 10.1177/0049124112442142

Wines of Baja. (2013). Wines of Baja: Renewing the history of Mexico’s wines. Retrieved from http://www.chiff.com/a/wine-baja.htm