Psychological distance in the diaspora marketing of nostalgic products: A venezuelan case

Main Article Content

Maria Christina Saksanian
Otto Regalado-Pezúa
Walter Palomino-Tamayo


With this first systematic review of specific literature about diaspora marketing, it was found that this emerging literature focuses mainly on opportunities related to trade, tourism, and the acculturation between countries with different languages in only one host country. This research contributes toward a greater understanding of diaspora buying behavior using the construal level
theory, specifically regarding the purchase of nostalgic products and services, examining the case of Venezuelan diaspora in the broader international context of five host countries: Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, and Panama Another contribution is the use of e-WOM metrics derived from advertising posts on Instagram. The results show that diaspora consumers in host countries that have higher levels of individualism, less masculinity, and are further geographically from their homeland seek to consume greater amounts of nostalgic products.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
SAKSANIAN, M. C.; REGALADO-PEZÚA, O.; PALOMINO-TAMAYO, W. Psychological distance in the diaspora marketing of nostalgic products: A venezuelan case . RAE - Revista de Administracao de Empresas , [S. l.], v. 62, n. 1, p. 1–19, 2021. DOI: 10.1590/S0034-759020220103. Disponível em: Acesso em: 20 jul. 2024.


Artal-Tur, A., Ghoneim, A. F., & Peridy, N. (2015). Proximity, trade and ethnic networks of migrants: Case study for France and Egypt. International Journal of Manpower, 36(4), 619-648. doi: 10.1108/IJM-02-2014-0062

Badinella, C., & Chong, D. (2015). Contemporary Afro and two-sidedness: Black diaspora aesthetic practices and the art market. Culture and Organization, 21(2), 97-125. doi: 10.1080/14759551.2013.806507

Brillon, C.. (2015). From local to global: Philippine broadcast networks and the Filipino diaspora. International Journal of Communication, 9, 19. Retrieved from

Brown, H. (1980). The optimal distance model of second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 14(2), 157-164. doi: 10.2307/3586310

Bundas, A. (2018). Diaspora networks and the consumption of nostalgic products among Romanian migrants in Germany. Oradea Journal of Business and Economics, 3(2), 86-99. Retrieved from

Bundy, L. (2017). Expatriates go shopping: Food and shopping acculturation. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 45 (10), 1079-1094. doi: 10.1108/IJRDM-08-2016-0127

Centre d'Études Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales (2019). Research and expertise in the world economy. Geodist. Retrieved from

Chandrasen, A. (2016). Sojourner consumer behaviour: The influence of nostalgia, ethnocentrism, cosmopolitanism and place attachment (Doctoral dissertation, Lancaster University, Lancaster-UK). Retrieved from:

Choi, J., & Yeniyurt, S. (2015). Contingency distance factors and international research and development (R&D), marketing, and manufacturing alliance formations. International Business Review, 24(6), 1061-1071. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2015.04.007

Cross, S. N., & Gilly, M. C. (2014). Cultural competence and cultural compensatory mechanisms in binational households. Journal of Marketing, 78(3), 121-139. doi: 10.1509/jm.11.0310

De-Juan-Vigaray, M. D., Garau-Vadell, J. B., & Sesé, A. (2021). Acculturation, shopping acculturation, and shopping motives of international residential tourists. Tourism Management, 83, 1-9. 104229. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104229

Demangeot, C., Broderick, A. J., & Craig, C. S. (2015). Multicultural marketplaces: New territory for international marketing and consumer research. International Marketing Review, 32(2), 118-140. doi: 10.1108/IMR-01-2015-0017

Dey, B., Alwi, S., Yamoah, F., Agyapong, S., Kizgin, H., & Sarma, M. (2019). Towards a framework for understanding ethnic consumers' acculturation strategies in a multicultural environment: A food consumption perspective. International Marketing Review. 36(5), 771-804. doi: 10.1108/IMR-03-2018-0103

Dey, B. L., Balmer, J. M., Pandit, A., Saren, M., & Binsardi, B. (2017). A quadripartite approach to analysing young British South Asian adults’ dual cultural identity. Journal of Marketing Management, 33(9-10), 789-816. doi: 10.1080/0267257X.2017.1324896

Elo, M., Minto-Coy, I., Silva, S. C. E., & Zhang, X. (2020). Diaspora networks in international marketing: How do ethnic products diffuse to foreign markets? European Journal of International Management, 14(4), 693-729. doi: 10.1504/EJIM.2020.107606

Fischer, R., Vauclair, C. M., Fontaine, J. R., & Schwartz, S. H. (2010). Are individual-level and country-level value structures different? Testing Hofstede’s legacy with the Schwartz Value Survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(2), 135-151. doi: 10.1177/0022022109354377

Frank, B., Abulaiti, G., & Enkawa, T. (2012). What characterizes Chinese consumer behavior? A cross-industry analysis of the Chinese diaspora in Japan. Marketing Letters, 23(3), 683-70. doi: 10.1007/s11002-012-9171-8

Ghemawat, P. (2001). Distance still matters : The Hard Reality of Global Expansion. Harvard Business Review, 79(8), 137-147. Retrieve from:

Gliner, J. A., Morgan, G. A., & Leech, N. L. (2011). Research methods in applied settings: An integrated approach to design and analysis. (3rd ed). New York, NY: Routledge.

Guzmán, F., Paswan, A. K., & Fabrize, R. O. (2017). Crossing the border: Changes in self and brands. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 34(4), 306-318. doi: 10.1108/JCM-07-2015-1483

Heinberg, M., Katsikeas, C. S., Ozkaya, H. E., & Taube, M. (2019). How nostalgic brand positioning shapes brand equity: Differences between emerging and developed markets. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 48(5), 869–890. doi: 10.1007/s11747-019-00637-x

Henthorne, T. L., Williams, A. J., & George, B. P. (2018). Cross-cultural consumer complaining behavior in service industries: A three-nation study across the African diaspora. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 26(4), 431-446. doi: 10.1080/10696679.2018.1488220

Hofstede, G. (2019). The 6 dimensions of national culture. Retrieved from

Holak, S. L. (2014). From Brighton beach to blogs: Exploring food-related nostalgia in the Russian diaspora. Consumption Markets & Culture, 17(2), 185-207. doi: 10.1080/10253866.2013.776308

Imbens, G. W., & Rubin, D. B. (2015). Causal inference in statistics, social, and biomedical Sciences. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Kim, Y., & Chen, S. (2016). Designing cultural products for Asian–American consumers: A conceptual framework. Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy, 2(1), 51-58. Retrieved from:

Kogut, B., & Singh, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(3), 411-432. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490394

Krautz, C., & Hoffmann, S. (2017). The tenure-based customer retention model: A cross-cultural validation. Journal of International Marketing, 25(3), 83-106. doi: 10.1509/jim.16.0040

Kumar, V., & Pansari, A. (2016). National culture, economy, and customer lifetime value: Assessing the relative impact of the drivers of customer lifetime value for a global retailer. Journal of International Marketing, 24(1), 1-21. doi: 10.1509/jim.15.0112

Kumar, N., & Steenkamp, J. B. E. (2013). Diaspora marketing. Harvard Business Review, 91(10), 127-131. Retrieved from:

Leonidou, L. C., Kvasova, O., Christodoulides, P., & Tokar, S. (2019). Personality traits, consumer animosity, and foreign product avoidance: The moderating role of individual cultural characteristics. Journal of International Marketing, 27(2), 76-96. doi: 10.1177/1069031X19834936

Liberman, N., Trope, Y., & Wakslak, C. (2007). Construal level theory and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(2), 113-117. doi: 10.1016/S1057-7408(07)70017-7

Liviatan, I., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2008). Interpersonal similarity as a social distance dimension: Implications for perceptions of others' actions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(5), 1256-1269. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.04.007

Matejowsky, T. (2020). What’s all the buzz about? Jollibee, diaspora marketing, and next-stage fast food globalization. Food and Foodways, 28(4), 274-296. doi: 10.1080/07409710.2020.1826717

Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., & Pride, R. (2003). Marketing to the Welsh diaspora: The appeal to hiraeth and homecoming. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(1), 69-80. doi: 10.1177/135676670200900105

Mostafa, M. M. (2018). Mining and mapping halal food consumers: A geo-located Twitter opinion polarity analysis. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 24(7), 858-879. doi: 10.1080/10454446.2017.1418695

Murdy, S., Alexander, M., & Bryce, D. (2018). What pulls ancestral tourists ‘home’? An analysis of ancestral tourist motivations. Tourism Management, 64, 13-19. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2017.07.011

Ogunyemi, O. (2018). Shaping the perception of African conflicts through framing: A case study of the African diasporic press in the UK. Media, War & Conflict, 11(4), 421-433. doi: 10.1177/1750635218779918

Oxford Dictionary (n.d.). Definition of nostalgia. Retrieved from

Palomino-Tamayo, W., Timana, J., & Cerviño, J. (2020). The firm value and marketing intensity decision in conditions of financial constraint: A comparative study of the United States and Latin America. Journal of International Marketing, 28(3), 21-39. doi: 10.1177/1069031X20943533

Papadopoulos, N., Banna, A. E., & Murphy, S. A. (2017). Old country passions: An international examination of country image, animosity, and affinity among ethnic consumers. Journal of International Marketing, 25(3), 61-82. doi: 10.1509/jim.16.0077

Penaloza, L. (1994). Atravesando fronteras/border crossings: A critical ethnographic exploration of the consumer acculturation of Mexican immigrants. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 32-54. doi: 10.1086/209381

Preez, E. A. du, & Govender, L. K. (2020). Travelling to the Motherland: Relating acculturation to diaspora tourism experiences. Anatolia, 31(2), 197-210.

Quinn, M., & Devasagayam, R. (2005). Building brand community among ethnic diaspora in the USA: Strategic implications for marketers. Journal of Brand Management, 13(2), 101-114. doi: 10.1057/

R4V. (2019). Coordination platform for refugees and migrants from Venezuela. Retrieved from

Reece, A. G., & Danforth, C. M. (2017). Instagram photos reveal predictive markers of depression. EPJ Data Science, 6(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1140/epjds/s13688-017-0110-z

Rosario, A. B., Sotgiu, F., Valck, K. De, & Bijmolt, T. H. (2016). The effect of electronic word of mouth on sales: A meta-analytic review of platform, product, and metric factors. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(3), 297-318. doi: 10.1509/jmr.14.0380

Schmeichel, M., Kerr, S., & Linder, C. (2020). Selfies as postfeminist pedagogy: The production of traditional femininity in the US South. Gender and Education, 32(3), 363-381. doi: 10.1080/09540253.2017.1411890

Talay, M. B., Akdeniz, M. B., Obal, M., & Townsend, J. D. (2019). Stock market reactions to new product launches in international markets: The moderating role of culture. Journal of International Marketing, 27(4), 1-18. doi: 10.1177/1069031X19874789

Talay, M. B., Townsend, J. D., & Yeniyurt, S. (2015). Global brand architecture position and market-based performance: The moderating role of culture. Journal of International Marketing, 23(2), 55-72. doi: 10.1509/jim.13.0164

Tambiah, S. J. (2017). Transnational movements, diaspora, and multiple modernities. Daedalus, 129(1), 163-194. Retrieved from

Tien, C., & Luan, C. J. (2015). Is the magic of the diaspora fact or fiction? A study of Taiwan’s trade performance in the bamboo network. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 51(sup1), S234-S250. doi: 10.1080/1540496X.2014.998890

Trope, Y., Liberman, N., & Wakslak, C. (2007). Construal levels and psychological distance: Effects on representation, prediction, evaluation, and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17(2), 83-95. doi: 10.1016/S1057-7408(07)70013-X

Vassolo, R. S., Castro, J. O. De, & Gomez-Mejia, L. R. (2011). Managing in Latin America: Common issues and a research agenda. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(4), 22-36.

Vidal, E. M., & Tjaden, J. D. (Eds.) (2018). Global migration indicators. Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) International Organization for Migration. Retrieved from

Vries, L. De, Gensler, S., & Leeflang, P. S. H. (2012). Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages: An investigation of the effects of social media marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 83-91. doi: 10.1016/j.intmar.2012.01.003

Wagner, K. (2018). Nostalgic photographs in the contemporary image ecology: The example of Tyrrells crisp packaging. Journal of Aesthetics & Culture, 10(1), 1-12 doi: 10.1080/20004214.2017.1421375

Weaver, D. B., Kwek, A., & Wang, Y. (2017). Cultural connectedness and visitor segmentation in diaspora Chinese tourism. Tourism Management, 63, 302-314. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2017.06.028

Yousaf, S., & Samreen, N. (2016). Information agents and cultural differences as determinants of country’s reputation and its subsequent effects on tourism prospects of a country in sustained crises: The case of Pakistan. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 22(4), 365-384. doi: 10.1177/1356766715623828

Zhao, F., Sun, J., Devasagayam, R., & Clendenen, G. (2018). Effects of culture and financial literacy among Chinese-Americans on participating in financial services. Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 23(1), 62-75. doi: 10.1057/s41264-018-0044-y