RAE uses the norms of the American Psychological Association - APA (7 ed) for formatting citations and references.

The publications are cited in the text using the author-date system and are listed in alphabetic order in the list of references.



Direct citation

A text or phrase by another author or the same author should be reproduced exactly. In the text, the author, the year, and the specific page or paragraph number must be informed, if the material does not have pagination, the title or name of the section, and paragraph number must be included.

For citations of less than 40 words, use double quotation marks and incorporate it into the paragraph. If the citation appears in the middle of a sentence, you should use double quotation marks and include the year in parentheses.

For March (2007), EGOS was conceived “[…] as a kind of intellectual social movement within organizations scholarship, defending, developing and extending a particular point of view and producing, augmenting and proclaiming European resistance […] (p. 10)” to the hegemony of North-American scholars. 

If the citation appears at the end of a sentence, then cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks.

The analysis of empowerment involves, therefore, “exploring how the different catalysts cause empowerment as well as changes in empowerment capacity at individual and community levels.” (Corbett & Keller, 2005, p. 95)

For a citation of 40 words or more, you should present it in a distinct paragraph, with a left indent of 0.5 cm, no quotation marks, and double line spacing. At the end of the citation, you should indicate the source and the page number in parentheses after the final period. See the example below:

Today, the market tends to become the shaping force of society at large, and the peculiar type of organization that meets its requirements has assumed the character of a paradigm for organizing human existence at large. In such circumstances, the market pattern of thinking and language tends to become equivalent to patterns of thinking and language at large; this is the environment of cognitive politics. The established organizational scholarship is uncritical or unaware of these circumstances, and thus is itself a manifestation of the success of cognitive politics. (Guerreiro Ramos, 1989, p. 92) 

If the source is cited in the sentence which introduces the citation (for example, “Em 1989, Guerreiro Ramos afirmou que...”), you should just indicate the page number at the end of the citation.

Direct citation from internet material without pages

Direct citations from electronic material should be cited indicating the author, the year and the page numbers in parentheses. Because many electronic sources do not have pages, include the paragraph number if they are numbered. Use the abbreviation “para.” See the example:

To George and Scerri (2007), “the alternative source for legal information is provided by the free access providers” (para. 7). 

If the page numbers or paragraph numbers are available, indicate the title and the paragraph number at the end of the citation in parentheses.

Diniz (2014) afirma que a RAE “tem investido no processo de internacionalização e isto inclui: a chamada e publicação de artigos e a participação de pesquisadores estrangeiros em seu comitê editorial” (Internacionalização da RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, para. 1). 

When the titles are too long to be cited in their entirety, you should use the title in quotation marks after the citation, enclosing everything in parentheses.

The alternative source for legal information is provided by the free access providers (Mowbary, Greenleaf, Chung, & Autin, 2007, “Improving stability and performance”, para 7). 

 Attention: You should use an ellipsis to indicate text that has been left out. For example:

“legitimacy is not a commodity to be possessed or exchanged but a condition reflecting cultural alignment . . .” (Scott, 1995, p. 45).

 Works by a single author

The author-date system suggests that the author’s last name (you shouldn’t include suffixes like Jr.) and year be inserted in the text:

Segundo Cooke (2003), assim, aquilo que é considerado historiografia contribui para a legitimação das instituições, práticas e corpos de conhecimento contemporâneos.

Nesse campo emergente, defende-se, ainda, que estudos históricos dizem respeito ao presente e ao passado, concomitantemente (Cooke, 2003).

Papers by multiple authors

In papers by two authors, you should always cite the two authors in the text. For three, four or five authors, you should indicate the last name of all the authors in the first citation; for subsequent citations include the first author followed by et al. (no italics). Examples:

Pozzebon, et al. (2009)

(Pozzebon et al., 2009)

Note: When citing a work in the text you should use “and” before the last surname. For citations in parentheses, in tables, in figure headings, and in the list of references, use “&.”

Gomes e Novaes (2006) reportam que os benefícios são aproveitados por todos os acionistas (Grossman & Hart, 1980).

Para evitar ambiguidade nas citações com três os mais autores que tenham o mesmo ano de publicação deve-se descrever quantos nomes forem necessários para haver distinção. Veja exemplos:

• First citation in the text:

Fontes, Candido, Cerqueira, Martins, and Gaia (2022)

Fontes, Candido, Silva, Marques, Moura, Ramos, and Pereira (2022)

• Subsequent citations:

Fontes, Candido, Cerqueira, et al. (2022)

Fontes, Candido, Silva, et al. (2022)

Entity as an author

Entities that act as authors (corporations, associations, governmental bodies, etc.) should be cited in their entirety wherever they appear in the text. For long and difficult names, when an abbreviation is understandable, you can use it beginning with the second citation.

The American Psychological Association (APA, 2017) described...

(American Psychological Association [APA], 2017)

Authors with the same last name

In the case of publications by two or more main authors with the same last name, you should indicate the initials of the first author in all the citations of the text, even if the year of the publication is distinct. Example:


According to studies by H. Lee (2002) and P. Lee, Yeung, and Edwin Cheng (2009).


Lee, H. (2002). Aligning supply chain strategies with product uncertainties. California Management Review, 44(3), 105-119. 

Lee, P., Yeung, A., & Edwin Cheng, T. (2009). Supplier alliances and environmental uncertainty: An empirical study. International Journal of Production Economics, 120(1), 190-204.

Two or more works within the same parentheses

They should be in the same order as they appear in the list of references. Citations of works in press should be included at the end:

efeitos do desenvolvimento econômico (Puri, 2006, 2007)

For citations by the same author(s) published in the same year, use the suffixes a, b, c and so on after the year:

conforme estudos (Diniz, 2014a, 2014b) 

Two or more works by different authors, when cited within parentheses, should be presented in alphabetic order

Inúmeros estudos (Barros & Carrieri, 2015; Taupin, 2015)

Citations in specific parts of a source

For citations of specific parts of a source, you should indicate the page, the chapter, the figure, the table, or the equation in the appropriate part of the text:

(Fleury & Fleury, 2011, capítulo 5)

(Alcadipani, 2005, p. 29)

Citations of text within parentheses

You should use a comma, instead of brackets, to separate the date:

(see Figure 1, Miotto & Parente, 2015) 

Examples of citations in the text

Exhibit 1. Basic citation styles

Citation type

Parenthetical citations

Narrative citations

Work by one author

(Luna, 2020)

Luna (2020)

Work by two authors

(Salas & D’Agostino, 2020)

Salas & D’Agostino (2020)

Work by three authors

(Martin et al., 2022)

Martin et al. (2022)

Entities (identified by abbreviations) as authors


First citation in the text:


Subsequent citations




(National Institute of Mental Heath [NIMH], 2020


(NIMH, 2020)




National Institute of Mental Heath (NIMH, 2020)


NIMH (2020)

Entities (without abbreviations) as authors

(Stanford University, 2020)

Stanford University (2020)

Retrieved from the Publication Manual of the APA, by G. R. VandenBos et al. (Eds), 2022, p. 272.



Ordering names

References should be organized in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name, followed by the initials of the first and middle names.

Ordering works by the same first author:

Works by a single author or multiple authors are ordered by the year of publication, in chronological order:

Mazzon, J. A. (1982).
Mazzon, J. A. (1983).

Pozzebon, M., & Freitas, H. (1997). 
Pozzebon, M., & Freitas, H. (1998).

Works by a single author that is from publications with multiple authors begin with the same last name:

Zambaldi, F. (2012).
Zambaldi, F., Moura. M., Aranha, F., & Ferreira, E. (2010). 

References with the same first author and different second and third authors should be ordered alphabetically:

Carrieri, A. P., Diniz, A. P. R., Souza, E. M., & Menezes, R. S. S. (2013). 
Carrieri, A. P., Souza, E. M., & Aguiar, A. R. C. (2014). 

References with the same author(s) and same date of publication should be in alphabetical order by title (ignore the A or The), with lowercase letters – a, b, c, and so on – inserted after the year in parentheses:

Hernandez, J. M. C. (2002a). Resenha múltipla... 
Hernandez, J. M. C. (2002b). Um estudo empírico...

Ordering of works by different authors with the same last name

Works by distinct authors with the same last name should be ordered alphabetically by the first initial:

Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002).
Lee, Y., & Davis, P. (2008). 

Note: The initials of the first author should be included in all of the citations.

Attention: For hyphenated names, keep the hyphens and include a period after initials (Chanlat, J.-F., for Jean-François Chanlat).


 Insert the names of the editor(s) in the position of the author(s) and precede them with “Ed.” or “Eds.”, after the name of the last editor. For references of book chapters with editor(s), you should invert the name(s) of the editor(s), like this example:

Author, A. (2009). Chapter title. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Book title (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.

If this is a book without an editor, just include ‘In’ before the book title.

Date of publication

For magazines, informative bulletins and journals, you should indicate the year followed by the date of publication (month or month and day). If the date includes a season, you should indicate the year and the season.
For articles that were accepted for publication but still have not been published, in place of the year insert “in press”.
If the date of publication is not available yet, insert “n.d.” between parentheses.


Article or chapter title

Only the first word of the title and the subtitle should be capitalized along with proper names.

Supply chain resilience analysis: A Brazilian automotive case

Titles of scientific periodicals, informative bulletins and magazines

The name of the periodical should be written out in italic in upper and lower case letters.
RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas

Titles of books and reports

Only the first word of the title and the subtitle should be capitalized along with proper names. Where necessary indicate additional information like edition, report number, volume, etc. soon after the title in parentheses.

Advances in behavioral finance (Vol. 2).

Acceptable abbreviations in the reference list:


Parts of books and other publications



Rev. ed.

Revised edition

2nd ed.

Second edition

Ed. (Eds.)





No date

p. (pp.)










Tech Rep.

Technical report




Additional information should be included between brackets. See the following examples:

[Letter to the editor]

[Special Issue]

[Special Section]



[Audio podcast]

[Data file]



[Lecture notes]


[Computer software]

[Video webcast]

[Supplemental material]


Publication information

Scientific journals, informative bulletins, magazines: the volume number should appear in italics after the periodical title, followed by the edition number in parentheses, followed by the page numbers. Example:

RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 54(6), 606-618.

Electronic sources and identifiers versions based on printed sources should list the page numbers preceded by “pp”.

• Indicate the DOI (digital object identifier), if available, if not indicate the URL of the first page of the periodical, book, or article publisher.

• Access dates should not be included.

 • Journal article with a DOI

Mascarenhas, A. O., Gonçalves-Dias, S. L. F., & Baptista, R. (2015). Elementos para discussão da escravidão contemporânea como prática de gestão. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas55(2), 175-187. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020150207

Journal article with a DOI with more than seven authors

Wouters, M. W. J. M., Karim-Kos, H. E., Cessie, S. le., Wijnhoven, B. P. L., Stassen, L. P. S., Steup, W. H., & Tollenaar, R. A. E. M. (2009). Centralization of   esophageal cancer surgery: Does it improve clinical outcome. Surgical Oncology16(7), 1789-1798. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1245/s10434-009-0458-9

Citation in the text Wouters et al., 2009 ou Wouters et al. (2009)

Journal article without a DOI (when the DOI is unavailable)

Raupp, F. M., & Pinho, J. A. G. (2012). Possibilidades de participação no legislativo municipal por meio de portais eletrônicos. Cadernos Gestão Pública e  Cidadania17(61), 169-192. http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/cgpc/index

If the DOI is absent and the document was accessed electronically, you should indicate the URL of the periodical’s first page.

Journal article with DOI, electronic publication anticipated

Nyberg, D., & Wright, C. (2015). Performative and political: Corporate constructions of climate change risk. Organization. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508415572038

 If there is no DOI in an article that you have accessed electronically, indicate the URL of the periodical’s first page.

Production article published from ahead of print file

Pozzebon, M., Tello Rozas, S., & Delgado, N. (in press). Use and consequences of participatory GIS in a Mexican municipality: Applying a multilevel framework. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas. https://bit.ly/3goGYnJ

Importante: Para DOIs ou URLs longos é possível encurtá-los através dos serviços shortDOI fornecido pela International DOI Fundation (http://shortdoi.org/) ou bitly (https://bitly.com/)

 The exact URL is used because the article is published informally and still is not indexed in a periodical website.

Journal article without DOI

Poindexter, W. & Craig, J. (2022, October 19). Survey: What attracts top tech talent?. Harvard Business Review.

 Callamard, A. (2015). O Brasil e a internet: Como construir uma governança global. GV-executivo14(1), 18-21.

Journal article with number ID or eLocator

Isabella, G., Hernani-Merino, M., Mazzon, J. A., Tarazona, E., & Kuster, D. (2022). Efeito da atribuição de causa em um modelo de falha de serviço. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas62(6), e2020–0139. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020220601

Electronic journal article

Bergeson S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33–34. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aau7988

Hu, J. (2022, October 19). Hilary Mantel’s Double Vision. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/hilary-mantels-double-vision

Informative Bulletin article, without the author

Muralha de D. Dinis. (2014, Abril). Secretaria-Geral, Ministério da Educação e Ciência. https://www.bportugal.pt/pt-PT/ServicosaoPublico/MuralhadeDDinis/programa/Paginas/geral.aspx

In this case you need to insert the exact URL given the difficulty of find specific articles in informative bulletins.

Works without authors should be listed in alphabetic order by the first word of the title (in this case, “Muralha”).
In the citation, use the abbreviated title (or the entire title if it is short) between quotation marks for a citation within parentheses (“Muralha de D. Dinis”, 2014).

Journal article

Schwartsman, H. (2014, Julho 30). Drogas e poder. Folha de São Paulo, São Paulo, p. A2. 

Page numbers should be preceded by a “p.” (for a single page) or “pp.” (for multiple pages).

Electronic journal article

Rolli, C., & Fraga, E. (2015, 12 Abril). Busca por competitividade deve crescer e ampliar desemprego. Folha de São Paulo. http://www.folha.uol.com.br/ 

You should indicate the URL of the home page to avoid inactive URLs.

Special edition or special section within a journal

Silva, J. F. (Ed.). (2007). Estudos em Estratégia [Edição especial]. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas47(4).

Mendes-da-Silva, W., Costa, N. C., Barros, L. A., Armada, M. R., Norvilitis, J. M. (Eds.). (2015). Behavioral finance: Advances in the last decade [Seção especial]. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas55(1), 10-64.

Indicate the special section page number(s).
Indicate the names of the editors of the special edition or section and its title.
If it does not have editors, the title of the edition should be moved to the place of the author, - before the publication year. The reference should appear in alphabetic order according to the first relevant word of the title. Within the text, abbreviate the title between quotation marks for citations within parentheses.
To cite articles within a special edition, you can follow the format used for the citation of articles.

Books, reference works, and book chapters

Includes books and reference works, such as dictionaries and encyclopedias, among others, whether in printed or electronic form.

Book – printed version

 Williamson, P. J., Ramamurti, R., Fleury, A., & Fleury, M. T. L. (2013). The competitive advantage of emerging market multinationals. Cambridge.

Fonseca, C. E. C., Meirelles, F., & Diniz, E. (2010). Tecnologia bancária no Brasil: Uma história de conquistas, uma visão de futuro. Editora FGV. 

Electronic version of a printed book

Carrieri, A. P., & Saraiva, L. A. S. (2007). Simbolismo organizacional no Brasil. http://www.amazon.com.br 

Book only available in electronic format

Valentim, M. (2010). Gestão, mediação e uso da informação. http://books.scielo.org/id/j4gkh 

Reference work

Razzolini Filho, E., & Zarpelon, M. I. (2005). Dicionário de administração de A a Z. Juruá

Reference work in a language other than English, title translated into English

Academia Brasileira de Letras. (2009). Vocabulário Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa [Spelling Vocabulary of the Portuguese Language] (5th ed.). ABL.

Book chapter

Zietsma, C., & McKnight, B. (2009). Building the iron cage: Institutional creation work in the context of competing protoinstitutions. In T. Lawrence, R. Suddaby, & B. Leca (Eds.), Institutional work: Actors and agency in institutional studies of organizations (pp. 143-177). Cambridge University Press. 

Technical and research reports

Technical and research reports describe original research and complement formal publication. This type of work includes additional resources, and details, as well as research and experimental methods. References should be formatted in the same manner as books.

• Organizational author, a government report

Brasil. Secretaria de Estado de Planejamento, Governo de Mato Grosso. (2014). Relatório de ação governamental. http://www.repositorio.seplan.mt.gov.br/orcamento/gestao/rag/rag2014/RAG2014-SINTETICO.pdf 

• Report with the author from a non-governmental organization

Singer, S. (Ed). (2011). The energy report – 100% renewable energy by 2050. World Wide Fund for Nature. http://awsassets.wwf.ca/downloads/the_energy_report.pdf 

• Institutional archive report

Fundação Getulio Vargas. (2013). Relatório Anual. Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola Brasileira de Administração Pública e de Empresas. http://portal.fgv.br/sites/default/files/fgv-relatorio-anual-2013.pdf

Meetings, congresses, and symposiums

Consists of papers that were presented but not formally published.

• Symposium contribution

Moori, R. G., Pescarmona, A., & Kimura, H. (2012, Agosto 18-20). Manufatura enxuta e desempenho de negócios. In M. A. de Vasconcellos [Conference session]. XV Simpósio de Administração da Produção, Logística e Operações Internacionais. Simpósio organizado pela Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.

• Abstract of a conference paper, accessed electronically

Boava, D. L. T., & Macedo, F. M. F. (2006, Setembro 30-Outubro 1). Estudo sobre a essência do empreendimento. [Artigo apresentado]. Trigésimo Encontro da ANPAD, Salvador, BA, Brasil. http://www.anpad.org.br/enanpad/2006/htm/enanpad2006-esoc-2015-resumo.html 

Doctoral theses and Masters dissertations

These are works that can be accessed from databases, institutional archives and personal websites. If it is accessed from a database, this information should be included along with the access number or order number in the reference.

• Masters dissertation obtained from a commercial database

Martinka, L. (2012). How social media communities impact consumer behavior (Master’s thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI 1510438) 

• Doctoral thesis obtained from an institutional database

Almeida, G. (2013). Valores, atitudes e intenção empreendedora: Um estudo com universitários brasileiros e cabo-verdianos (Tese de doutorado). http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/dspace/ 

• Doctoral thesis accessed from the internet

Saldanha, G. (2012). Uma filosofia da Ciência da Informação: Organização dos saberes, linguagem e transgramáticas (Tese de doutorado, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro). http://www.ppgci.ufrj.br/teses-e-dissertacoes/teses-doutorado.html# 

Book reviews and peer reviews

These are reviews of books, films and other informational and entertainment products.

• Book reviews

Costa, A. S. M. (2015). Historical turn: Em busca de um marco teórico crítico para estudos organizacionais. [Resenha do livro Organizations in time: History, Theory, Methods, de M. Bucheli & R. D. Wadhwani]. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 55(2), 232-233. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020150213

Importante: Para DOIs ou URLs longos é possível encurtá-los através dos serviços shortDOI fornecido pela International DOI Fundation (http://shortdoi.org/) ou bitly (https://bitly.com/)

Audiovisual media

Includes films, audio, videos, maps, illustrations and photos.

• Video

Fundação Getulio Vargas – Management Rio (Produtora). (2013). 6º Painel FGV com Abilio Diniz. [Film]. http://management.fgv.br/painel-fgv-abilio-diniz 

• Podcast

Moura, R. L. & Barros, G. L. (Produtores). (2012, 18 Outubro). Um conceito de renda ampliada em bases mensais para a economia brasileira e sua aplicação [Áudio podcast]. http://portalibre.fgv.br/ 

• Map accessed electronically

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Cartógrafo). (2006). Logística de energia. ftp://geoftp.ibge.gov.br/mapas_tematicos/mapas_murais/logistica_energia_2006.pdf 


Includes data and instruments that help people conduct research.

Publish or Perish (Version 4) [Computer software]. from http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm 

Sobrenome, A. A., & Sobrenome, B., B. (Ano). Título do trabalho. (Versão 1.2) [Aplicativo móvel]. Loja de Aplicativos. URL ou DOI

Unpublished or informally published works

These are works that were not concluded but were submitted for publication, or were concluded but not submitted to periodicals. These include works available through personal or institutional websites, electronic databases, or pre-press files.

Sobrenome, A. A., & Sobrenome, B., B. (Ano).  Título do trabalho. [Não publicado]. Nome do Departamento. URL

Sobrenome, A. A., & Sobrenome, B., B. (Ano).  Título do trabalho. [Em preparação]. Nome do Departamento. URL

Sobrenome, A. A., & Sobrenome, B., B. (Ano).  Título do trabalho. [Submetido para publicação]. Nome do Departamento. URL

 Sobrenome, A. A., & Sobrenome, B., B. (Ano).  Título do trabalho. Nome do Banco de Dados]. DOI ou URL

Documents from archives

Includes letters, unpublished articles, brochures, pamphlets, institutional and organizational documents, as well as non-text materials, such as photographs and equipment that belong to the author or are part of the institution’s collection.

• Recorded interviews available in archives

 Penha, A. M. (2010). Interview by M. C. Mariani and T. Franken [Recording]. Adolfo Martins Penha (interview, 1977). Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação de História Contemporânea do Brasil (CPDOC), Fundação Getulio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro.

• Correspondence from private collections should be listed only with permission from the collector.

• If letters from the same collection are cited, list the entire collection and in the citations supply specific information (author, recipient and date) for each letter.

• Brackets should be used to indicate information which does not appear in the document and question marks when there’s uncertainty about names and dates.

• In interviews and conversations, the person being identified should be identified as the author. The name of the interviewer should be included in the description.

Social networks

• Post on a blog or social network

FGV/EAESP. (2015, abril 8). Alta do dólar provoca mudanças nos hábitos de consumo dos brasileiros. http://eaesp.fgvsp.br/post/alta-do-dolar-provoca-mudancas-nos-habitos-de-consumo-dos-brasileiros 

• For blog comments, you should indicate the nickname of the person making the comment in the author field and insert “Re:” before the title of the post.

• Every reference cited in the text should.