The effect of gender diversity and education level on innovation

Main Article Content

Ana M. Romero-Martínez
Ángeles Montoro-Sánchez
Youseline Garavito-Hernández

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of gender diversity and education level of R&D employees on innovation. We use as source of information the Community Innovation Survey belonging to the general plan for statistics of the European Union (Eurostat). From a sample of 7,962 firms, most of them small firms, the results show that the diversity of gender and educational level of R&D employees individually have a positive influence on product innovation, although there is no significant effect of combined effect.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
ROMERO-MARTÍNEZ, A. M.; MONTORO-SÁNCHEZ, Ángeles; GARAVITO-HERNÁNDEZ, Y. The effect of gender diversity and education level on innovation. RAE - Revista de Administracao de Empresas , [S. l.], v. 57, n. 2, p. 123–134, 2017. DOI: 10.1590/S0034-759020170202. Disponível em: https://periodicos.fgv.br/rae/article/view/67399. Acesso em: 15 jun. 2024.
Section
Articles

References

Acs, Z. J., & Preston, L. (1997). Small and medium-sized enterprises, technology, and globalization: Introduction to a special issue on small and medium-sized enterprises in the global economy. Small Business Economics, 9(1), 1-6. doi:10.1023/a:1007945327618

Alexiev, A., Jansen, J., Bosch, A. Van den, & Volberda, H. (2010). Top management team advice seeking and exploratory innovation: The moderating role of TMT heterogeneity. Journal of Management Studies, 47(7), 1343-1364. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00919.x

Bae, T. J., Qian, S., Miao, C., & Fiet, J. O. (2014). The relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions: A metaAnalytic Review. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(2), 217- 254. doi:10.1111/etap.12095

Banco Mundial. (2013). Informe anual. Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI). Bantel, K., & Jackson, S. (1989). Top management and innovations in banking: Does the composition of the top team make a difference? Strategic Management Journal, 10(S1), 107-124. doi:10.1002/ smj.4250100709

Bruin, A., Brush, C. G., & Welter, F. (2007). Advancing a framework for coherent research on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 323-339. doi:10.1111/j.1540- 6520.2007.00176.x

Cardinal, L. B. (2001). Technological innovation in the pharmaceutical industry: The use of organizational control in managing research and development. Organization Science, 12(1), 19-36. doi:10.1287/ orsc.12.1.19.10119

Castilla, E. J., & Benard, S. (2010). The paradox of meritocracy in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(4), 543-576. doi:10.2189/asqu.2010.55.4.543

Cefis, E., & Marsili, O. (2006). Survivor: The role of innovation in firms’ survival. Research Policy, 35(5), 626-641. doi:10.1016/j. respol.2006.02.006

Corbett, A., Covin, J. G., O’Connor, G. C., & Tucci, C. L. (2013). Corporate entrepreneurship: State of the art research and a future research agenda. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(5), 812-820. doi:10.1111/jpim.12031

Crawford, C. B., Gould, L. V., & Scott, R. F. (2003). Transformational leader as champion and techie: Implications for leadership educators. Journal of Leadership Education, 2(1), 1-12.

Deakins, D., Glancey, K., Menter, I., & Wyper, J. (2005). Enterprise education: The role of head teachers. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 241-263. doi:10.1007/s11365-005- 1131-9

DeLong, D. W., & Fahey, L. (2000). Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management. Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), 113-127.

Díaz-García, C., González-Moreno, A., & Sáez-Martínez, F. (2013). Gender diversity within R&D teams: Its impact on radicalness of innovation. Innovation: Organization & Management, 15(2), 149-160. doi:10.5172/impp.2013.15.2.149

Donate, M. J., & Guadamillas, F. (2011). Organizational factors to support knowledge management and innovation. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(6), 890-914. doi:10.1108/13673271111179271

Doorn, S. Van, Jansen, J. P., Bosch, F. A. J. Van den, & Volberda, H. W. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance: Drawing attention to the senior team. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(5), 821-836. doi:10.1111/jpim.12032

Fernández-Sastre, J. (2015). The impact of R&D teams’ gender diversity on innovation outputs. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24(1), 142-162. doi:10.1504/ijesb.2015.066154

Frink, D., Robinson, R., Reithel, B., Arthur, M., Ammeter, A., Ferris, G. ... Morrisette, H. (2003). Gender demography and organizational performance: A two study investigation with convergence. Group & Organization Management, 28(1), 127-147. doi:10.1177/1059601102250025

Fuentes, M., Bojica, A., & Arroyo, M. R. (2010). La orientación emprendedora en las iniciativas empresariales de mujeres: Influencia de las relaciones externas. Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales, 20, 35-53.

Galende, J., & Fuente, J. De la. (2003). Internal factors determining a firm’s innovative behaviour. Research Policy, 32(5), 715-736. doi:10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00082-3

Gallego, A. C., & Briones, J. L. (2007). La diversidad de género en el Código Unificado español y la práctica empresarial. Pecvnia: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, 4, 1-25.

Garcia, R., & Calantone, R. (2002). A critical look at technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: A literature review. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 19(2), 110-132. doi:10.1111/1540-5885.1920110

García, M. C. D., & Moreno, A. G. (2012). La cuota de mujeres en los consejos de administración: ¿2015 una utopía? Boletín Económico de ICE, 3027, 53-61.

Gupta, V. K., Goktan, A. B., & Gunay, G. (2014). Gender differences in evaluation of new business opportunity: A stereotype threat perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(2), 273-288. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2013.02.002

Gupta, V. K., Turban, D., Wasti, S. A., & Sikdar, A. (2009). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 33(2), 397-417. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00296.x

Hambrick, D., Cho, T., & Chen, M. (1996). The influence of top management team heterogeneity on firms’ competitive moves. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 659-684. doi:10.2307/2393871

Hayton, J. (2005). Competing in the new economy: The effect of intellectual capital on corporate entrepreneurship in high-technology new ventures. R&D Management, 35(2), 137-155. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 9310.2005.00379.x

Hayton, J. C., & Kelley, D. J. (2006). A competency-based framework for promoting corporate entrepreneurship. Human Resource Management, 45(3), 407-427. doi:10.1002/hrm.20118

Heavey, C., & Simsek, Z. (2013). Top management compositional effects on corporate entrepreneurship: The moderating role of perceived technological uncertainty. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 30(5), 837-855. doi:10.1111/jpim.12033

Honig, B. (2001). Learning strategies and resources for entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(1), 21-35.

Hoobler, J. M., Wayne, S. J., & Lemmon, G. (2009). Bosses’ perceptions of family-work conflict and women’s promotability: Glass ceiling effects. Academy of Management Journal, 52(5), 939-957.

Horwitz, S. (2005). The compositional impact of team diversity on performance: Theoretical consideration. Human Resource Development Review, 4(2), 219-245. doi:10.1177/1534484305275847

Hoskisson, R. E., Covin, J., Volberda, H. W., & Johnson, R. A. (2011). Revitalizing entrepreneurship: The search for new research opportunities. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1141-1168. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00997.x

Jehn, K., Northcraft, G., & Neale, M. (1999). Why differences make a difference: A field study of diversity, conflict, and performance in work groups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(4), 741-763. doi:10.2307/2667054

Jennings, J., & Brush, C. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: Challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature?. The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 661-715. doi:10.1080/19 416520.2013.782190

Kearney, E., Gebert, D., & Voelpel, S. C. (2009). When and how diversity benefits teams: The importance of team members’ need for cognition. Academy of Management Journal, 52(3), 581-598. doi:10.5465/ amj.2009.41331431

Kessler, E. H., & Chakrabarti, A. K. (1999). Speeding up the pace of new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 16(3), 231-247. doi:10.1016/S0737-6782(98)00048-4

Kimberly, J. R., & Evanisko, M. J. (1981). Organizational innovation: The Influence of individual, organizational, and contextual factors on hospital adoption of technological and administrative innovations. Academy of Management Journal, 24(4), 689-713. doi:10.2307/256170

Lager, T. (2002). Product and process development intensity in process industry: A conceptual and empirical analysis of the allocation of company resources for the development of process technology. International Journal of Innovation Management, 6(2), 105-130. doi:10.1142/S1363919602000537

Liu, N. C., & Liu, M. S. (2011). Human resource practices and individual knowledge-sharing behavior- an empirical study for Taiwanese R&D professionals. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4), 981-997. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.555138

Love, J. H., & Roper, S. (2015). SME innovation, exporting and growth: A review of existing evidence. International Small Business Journal, 33(1), 28-48. doi:10.1177/0266242614550190

Manolopoulos, D. (2006). What motivates R&D professionals? Evidence from decentralized laboratories in Greece. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(4), 616-647. doi:10.1080/09585190600581394

Marvel, M. R., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2007). Technology entrepreneur’s human capital and its effects on innovation radicalness. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(6), 807-828. doi:10.1111/ j.1540-6520.2007.00209.x

McGuirk, H., Lenihan, H., & Hart, M. (2015). Measuring impact of innovative human capital on small firms’ propensity to innovate. Research Policy, 44(4), 965-976. doi:10.1016/j.respol.2014.11.008

McMillan-Capehart, A., & Simerly, R. (2008). Effects of managerial racial and gender diversity on organizational performance: An empirical study international. Journal of Management, 25(3), 446-451.

Miller, T., & Triana, M. C. (2009). Demographic diversity in the boardroom: Mediators of the board diversity-firm performance relationship. Journal of Management Studies, 46(5), 755-786. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 6486.2009.00839.x

Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work. Academy of Management Journal, 39(3), 607-634.

Orser, B., Riding, A., & Manley, K. (2006). Women entrepreneurs and financial capital. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 643- 665. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00140.x

Østergaard, C., Timmermans, B., & Kristinsson, K. (2011). Does a different view create something new? The effect of employee diversity on innovation. Research Policy, 40(3), 500-509. doi:10.1016/j. respol.2010.11.004

Pérez-Luño, A., Cabello-Medina, C., Carmona-Lavado, A., & CuevasRodríguez, G. (2011). How social capital and knowledge affect innovation. Journal of Business Research, 64(12), 1369-1376. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.01.014

Phan, P., Wright, M., Ucbasaran, D., & Tan, W. (2009). Corporate entrepreneurship: Current research and future directions. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(3), 197-205. doi:10.1016/j. jbusvent.2009.01.007

Ployhart, R. E., & Moliterno, T. P. (2011). Emergence of the human capital resource: A multilevel model. Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 127-150. doi:10.5465/amr.2009.0318

Rivero, A. (2008). Conciliación de la vida familiar y la vida laboral: Situación actual, necesidades y demandas. Madrid, España: Instituto de la Mujer, M-34729-2005.

Roach, M., & Sauermann, H. (2010). A taste for science? PhD scientists’s academic orientation and self-selection into research careers in industry. Research Policy, 39(3), 422-434. doi:10.1016/j. respol.2010.01.004

Robinson, G., & Dechant, K. (1997). Building a business case for diversity. The Academy of Management Executive, 11(3), 21-31. Sarooghi, H., Libaers, D., & Burkemper, A. (2015). Examining the relationship between creativity and innovation: A meta-analysis of organizational, cultural, and environmental factors. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(5), 714-731. doi:10.1016/j. jbusvent.2014.12.003

Sauermann, H., & Cohen, W. (2008). What makes them tick? Employee motives and firm innovation. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 14443.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217- 226.

Simonen, J., & McCann, P. (2008). Innovation, R&D cooperation and labor recruitment: Evidence from Finland. Small Business Economics, 31(2),181-194. doi:10.1007/s11187-007-9089-3

Simons, T., Pelled, L. H., & Smith, K. A. (1999). Making use of difference: Diversity, debate, and decision comprehensiveness in top management teams. Academy of Management Journal, 42(6), 662- 673.

Slater, S. F., Mohr, J. J., & Sengupta, S. (2014). Radical product innovation capability: Literature review, synthesis, and illustrative research propositions. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(3), 552-566. doi:10.1111/jpim.12113

Stephan, P. E. (2006). Wrapping it up in a person: The mobility patterns of new PhDs. Innovation Policy and the Economy, 7, 71-98.

Torchia, M., Calabrò, A., & Huse, M. (2011). Women directors on corporate boards: From tokenism to critical mass. Journal of Business Ethics, 102(2), 299-317. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0815-z

Unger, J. M., Rauch, A., Frese, M., & Rosenbusch, N. (2011). Human capital and entrepreneurialsuccess entrepreneurial success: A metaanalytical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(3), 341-358. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.09.004

Vegt, G. Van der, & Janssen, O. (2003). Joint impact of interdependence and group diversity on innovation. Journal of Management, 29(5), 729-751. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063_03_00033-3

Velu, C. (2015). Business model innovation and third-party alliance on the survival of new firms. Technovation, 35, 1-11. doi:10.1016/j. technovation.2014.09.007

Wan, D., Ong, C., & Lee, F. (2005). Determinants of firm innovation in Singapore. Technovation, 25(3), 261-268. doi:10.1016/S0166- 4972(03)00096-8

Wiersema, M., & Bantel, K. (1992). Top management team demography and corporate strategic change. Academy of Management Journal, 35(1), 91-121.

Williams, K., & O’Reilly, C. (1998). Demograhpy Demography and diversity in organizations: A review of 40 years of research. Research in Organizational Behavior, 20, 77-140.

Wu, S. H., Lin, L. Y., & Hsu, M. Y. (2007). Intellectual capital, dynamic capabilities and innovative performance of organisations. International Journal of Technology Management, 39(3/4), 279-296. doi:10.1504/IJTM.2007.013496

Zahra, S., Neubaum, D., & Huse, M. (2000). Entrepreneurship and medium-size companies: Exploring the effects of ownership and governance systems. Journal of Management, 26(5), 947-976. doi:10.1016/S0149-2063(00)00064-7

Zhang, Y., & Begley, T. (2011). Perceived organisational climate, knowledge transfer and innovation in China-based research and development companies. Internatioinal International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(1), 34-56. doi:10.1080/0958519 2.2011.538967

Artigos mais lidos escritos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)