Intertextual virality and vernacular repertoires: Internet memes as objects connecting different online worlds

Main Article Content

Maria Carolina Zanette
Izidoro Blikstein
Luca M. Visconti

Abstract

This work describes the trajectory of Internet memes, their main characteristics, and their relationship with the fields of virality literature and cultural production research. We explore the historical trajectory of internet memes and identify their constitutional features (vernacularism, virality, and intertextuality). We also propose that memes are objects that act as provocateurs; this is because they are carriers of meaning that reflect the repertoires of closed communities. However, they acquire new reflected repertoi­res in the process of being transmitted intertextually among consumers. As such, this work both clarifies the intertemporal and logical interdependencies between online cultural production and virality, as well as unveil the linking power of vernacular backgrounds and shared expressive practices (in our context, elaboration of common memes) for online consumer collectivities.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
ZANETTE, M. C.; BLIKSTEIN, I.; VISCONTI, L. M. Intertextual virality and vernacular repertoires: Internet memes as objects connecting different online worlds. RAE - Revista de Administracao de Empresas , [S. l.], v. 59, n. 3, p. 157–169, 2019. DOI: 10.1590/S0034-759020190302. Disponível em: https://periodicos.fgv.br/rae/article/view/79714. Acesso em: 20 apr. 2024.
Section
Articles

References

Allsop, D. T., Bassett, B. R., & Hoskins, J. A. (2007). Word-of-mouth research: Principles and applications. Journal of Advertising Research, 47(4), 398. doi:10.2501/S0021849907070419

Arvidsson, A., & Caliandro, A. (2015). Brand public. Journal of Consumer Research, 42(5), 727-748. doi:10.1093/jcr/ucv053

Bauckhage, C. (2011). Insights into internet memes. Fifth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. Recuperado de https://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/ICWSM/ICWSM11/paper/ viewPaper/2757

Benveniste, É. (1974). Problèmes de linguistique générale. Paris, France: Gallimard. Beran, D. (2017). 4chan: The skeleton key to the rise of Trump. Recuperado de https://medium.com/@DaleBeran/4chan-the-skeleton-key-to-the-rise-of-trump-624e7cb798cb

Blackmore, S. (2000). The meme machine. Oxford, UK: Oxford Paperbacks. Blikstein, I. (2016). Técnicas de comunicação escrita. São Paulo, SP: Contexto.

Börzsei, L. K. (2013, March). Makes a meme instead: A concise history of internet memes. New Media Studies Magazine, 7, 1-29.

Bretas, V. (2017). Bolsonaro cresce para 2018 e se aproxima de Lula, diz pesquisa. Recuperado de https://exame.abril.com.br/brasil/bolsonaro-cresce-para-2018-e-se-aproxima-de-lula-diz-pesquisa/

Brown, J. J., Broderick, A., & Lee, N. (2007). Word of mouth communication within online communities: Conceptualizing the online social network. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), 2-20. doi:10.1002/dir

Brown, J. J., & Reingen, P. H. (1987). Social ties and word-of-mouth referral behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(3), 350-362. doi:10.1086/209118

Castells, M. (2012). Redes de indignação e esperança. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Zahar.

Chola Mais/Cwy Mowe. (2016). Recuperado de http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/chola-mais-cwy-mowe

Dant, T. (2005). Materiality and society. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press. Davison, P. (2012). The language of internet memes. In M. Mandiberg (Ed.), The social media reader (pp. 120-134). New York, USA: NYU press.

Declercq, M. (2017). Como o LDRV se tornou a espinha dorsal do Brasil memético. Recuperado de https://www.vice.com/pt_br/ article/kz3dz9/como-o-ldrv-se-tornou-a-espinha-dorsal-do-brasil-memetico

Dellarocas, C. (2006). Strategic manipulation of internet opinion forums: Implications for consumers and firms. Management Science, 52(10), 1577-1593. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1060.0567

Evangelista, R. (2016a). Até a Mônica de verdade se rendeu à “Inbonha.” Recuperado de https://www.buzzfeed.com/raphaelevangelista/ate-a-monica-de-verdade-se-rendeu-a-inbonha?utm_term=.bvP3zbPpG1#.payDBwKoma

Evangelista, R. (2016b). Esta é a Alice, a menina que criou a “Inbonha.” Recuperado de https://www.buzzfeed.com/raphaelevangelista/esta-e-a-alice-a-menina-que-criou-a-inbonha?utm_term=.qd934Lpavz#.vbjM9xoD5K

Fournier, S., & Lee, L. (2009, April). Getting brand communities right. Harvard Business Review, 105-111. Recuperado de https://hbr.org/

Godes, D., & Mayzlin, D. (2004). Using online conversations to study word-of-mouth communication. Marketing Science, 23(4), 545-560. doi:10.1287/mksc.1040.0071

Godwin, M. (1994). Meme, counter meme. Wired. Recuperado de https://www.wired.com/1994/10/godwin-if-2/

Gomes, M. A. de M. (2016). Crítica à cobertura midiática da Operação Lava Jato. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Criminais, (122), 229-253.

Grespan, C. L., & Goellner, S. V. (2011). “Querem, na escola, transformar seu filho de 6 a 8 anos em homossexual”: Sexualidade, educação e a potência do discurso heteronormativo. FACED, 19(1), 103-122. doi:10.9771/2317-1219rf.v0i19.5251

Groeger, L., & Buttle, F. (2014). Word-of-mouth marketing: Towards an improved understanding of multi-generational campaign reach. European Journal of Marketing, 48(7/8), 1186-1208. doi:10.1108/ EJM-02-2012-0086

Guadagno, R. E., Rempala, D. M., Murphy, S., & Okdie, B. M. (2013). What makes a video go viral? An analysis of emotional contagion and internet memes. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(6), 2312-2319.

Harju, A. A., & Huovinen, A. (2015). Fashionably voluptuous: Normative femininity and resistant performative tactics in fatshion blogs. Journal of Marketing Management, 31(15-16), 1602-1625. doi:10.108 0/0267257X.2015.1066837

Holt, D. B. (2004). How brands become icons: The principles of cultural branding. Boston, USA: Harvard Business School Press.

Horta, N. B. (2015). O meme como linguagem da internet: Uma perspectiva semiótica. Dissertacao de Mestrado. Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF. Recuperado de http://repositorio.unb.br/handle/10482/18420

Howard, R. G. (2005). A theory of vernacular rhetoric: The case of the “sinner’s prayer” online. Folklore, 116(2), 172-188. doi:10.1080/00155870500140214

Howard, R. G. (2008a). The vernacular web of participatory media. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 25(5), 490-513. doi:10.1080/15295030802468065

Howard, R. G. (2009). Crusading on the vernacular web: The folk beliefs and practices of online spiritual warfare. In T. Blank (Ed.), Folklore and the internet: Vernacular expression in a digital world (pp. 159- 174). Logan, USA: Utah State University Press.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York, USA: NYU press.

Kates, S. M. (2004). The dynamics of brand legitimacy: An interpretive study in the gay men’s community. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2), 455-464. doi:10.1086/422122

Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Personal influence: The part played by people in the flow of mass communications. New York, USA: Transaction publishers.

Kozinets, R. V. (2001). Utopian enterprise: Articulating the meanings of Star Trek’s culture of consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1), 67-88. doi:10.1086/321948

Kozinets, R. V., Hemetsberger, A., & Schau, H. J. (2008). The wisdom of consumer crowds: Collective innovation in the age of networked marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 28(4), 339-354. https://doi. org/10.1177/0276146708325382

Kozinets, R. V., Valck, K. De, Wojnicki, A. C., & Wilner, S. J. S. (2010). Networked narratives: Understanding word-of-mouth marketing in online communities. Journal of Marketing, 74(2), 71-89. doi:10.1509/jmkg.74.2.71

Knobel, M. & Lankshear, C. (2007). Online memes, affinities, and cultural production. In C. Lankshear, M. Knobel, C. Bigum, & M. Pters (Eds.), A new literacies sampler (pp. 199-228). New York, USA: Peter Lang Publishing.

Lanham, R. A. (1993). The electronic word: Democracy, technology, and the arts. Chicago, USA: The University of Chicago Press.

Lanham, R. A. (2006). The economics of attention: Style and substance in the age of information. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

Latour, B. (2007). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network theory. Hampshire, UK: Oxford University Press.

Lins, R., Filho, D. F., & Silva, L. (2016). A redução da maioridade penal diminui a violência? Evidências de um estudo comparado 1. Opinião Pública, 22(1), 118-139. doi:10.1590/1807-0191201622118

Metropoles. (2016). Perfil reúne desenhos bizarros da Turma da Mônica em muros de escolas. Recuperado de https://www.metropoles.com/colunas-blogs/pipocando/perfil-reune-desenhos-bizarros-da-turma-da-monica-em-muros-de-escolas

Miles, C. (2014). The rhetoric of managed contagion: Metaphor and agency in the discourse of viral marketing. Marketing Theory, 14(1), 3-18. doi:10.1177/1470593113506433

Miller, C. R. (1984). Genre as social action. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70(2), 151-167. doi:10.1080/00335638409383686

Milner, R. M. (2013). Media lingua franca: Fixity, novelty, and vernacular creativity in internet memes. AoIR Selected Papers of Internet Research, 3, 1-5.

Mina, A. X. (2017). When internet memes infiltrate the physical world. Recuperado de https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/05/when-internet-memes-infiltrate-the-physical-world/523887/

Mônicas deformadas em muros de escolinhas. (2018). Recuperado de https://www.facebook.com/monicasdeformadas/

Muñiz, A. M., & Schau, H. J. (2005). Religiosity in the abandoned Apple Newton brand community. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 737- 747. doi:10.1086/426607

Muñiz, A. M., & Schau, H. J. (2011). How to inspire value-laden collaborative consumer-generated content. Business Horizons, 54(3), 209-217. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.002

Nissenbaum, A., & Shifman, L. (2017). Internet memes as contested cultural capital: The case of 4chain’s/b/board. New Media & Society, 19(4), 483-501.

Nooney, L., & Portwood-Stacer, L. (2014). One does not simply: An introduction to the special issue on memes. Journal of Visual Culture, 13(3), 248-252. doi:10.1177/1470412914551351

On a scale of 1 to X. (2012). Recuperado de http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/on-a-scale-of-1-to-x

Phelps, J. E., Lewis, R., Mobilio, L., Perry, D., & Raman, N. (2004). Viral marketing or electronic word-of-mouth advertising: Examining consumer responses and motivations to pass along email. Journal of Advertising Research, 44(4), 333-348. doi:10.1017/S0021849904040371

Phillips, W. (2015). This is why we can’t have nice things: Mapping the relationship between online trolling and mainstream culture. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press.

Reingen, P. H., Foster, B. L., Brown, J. J., & Seidman, S. B. (1984). Brand congruence in interpersonal relations: A social network analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 11(3), 771-783.

Rosenthal, B. (2014). Brand image co-creation and individual identity extension in online environments: A Facebook investigation. Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo, Fundação Getulio Vargas. Recuperado de http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/dspace/han-dle/10438/11581

Schau, H. J., Muñiz, A. M., & Arnould, E. J. (2009). How brand community practices create value. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 30-51. doi:10.1509/jmkg.73.5.30

Schouten, J. W., & McAlexander, J. H. (1995). Subcultures of consumption: An ethnography of the New Bikers. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(1), 43-61.

Schroeder, J. E., & Zwick, D. (2004). Mirrors of masculinity: Representation and identity in advertising images. Consumption Markets & Culture, 7(1), 21-52. doi:10.1080/1025386042000212383

Scott, L. M. (1994). Images in advertising: The need for a theory of visual rhetoric. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(2), 252-273.

Scott, L. M. (2009). Theoretical realism: Culture and politics in commercial imagery. In J. F. Sherry & E. Fischer (Eds.), Explorations in consumer culture theory (pp. 34-54). New York, USA: Routledge.

Scott, L. M., & Vargas, P. (2007). Writing with pictures: Toward a unifying theory of consumer response to images. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(3), 341-356. doi:10.1086/519145

Shifman, L. (2014). Memes in digital culture. Cambridge, USA: MIT Press. Sims, M. C., & Stephens, M. (2011). Living folklore: An introduction to the study of people and their traditions. Logan, USA: Utah State University Press.

Stratton, G., & Northcote, J. (2014). When totems beget clans: The brand symbol as the defining marker of brand communities. Journal of Consumer Culture, 16(2), 493-509. doi:10.1177/1469540514528194

Thomas, T., Price, L. L., & Schau, H. J. (2012). When differences unite: Resource dependence in heterogeneous consumption communities. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(5), 1010-1033. doi:10.1086/666616

Thompson, C. J., Arnould, E. J., & Giesler, M. (2013). Discursivity, difference, and disruption: Genealogical reflections on the consumer culture theory heteroglossia. Marketing Theory, 13(2), 149-174. doi:10.1177/1470593113477889

Thompson, C. J., & Üstüner, T. (2015). Women skating on the edge: Marketplace performances as ideological edgework. Journal of Consumer Research, 42(2), 235-265. doi:10.1093/jcr/ucv013

Trusov, M., Bucklin, R. E., & Pauwels, K. (2009). Effects of word-of-mouth versus traditional marketing: Findings from an internet social networking site. Journal of Marketing, 73(5), 90-102. doi:10.1509/jmkg.73.5.90

Warren, K., & Campbell, M. C. (2014). What makes things cool? How autonomy influences perceived coolness. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(82), 543-563.

Watts, D., & Dodds, P. S. (2007). Influentials, networks, and public opinion formation. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(4), 441-458. doi:10.1086/518527

Wiggins, B. E. (2016). Crimea River: Directionality in memes from the Russia – Ukraine conflict. International Journal of Communication, 10, 451-485.

Wiggins, B. E., & Bowers, G. B. (2014). Memes as genre: A structurational analysis of the memescape. New Media & Society, 17(11), 1886-1906. doi:10.1177/1461444814535194

Wu, Y., & Ardley, B. (2007). Brand strategy and brand evolution: Welcome to the world of the meme. The Marketing Review, 7(3), 301- 310. doi:10.1362/146934707X230112