Legal Realism for Economists

Autores

  • Matthew C. Stephenson

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.12660/rda.v281.2022.85994

Palavras-chave:

Legal Realism, judicial behavior, legal constraint

Resumo

Economists have made great progress in understanding the incentives and behavior of actors who operate outside of traditional economic markets, including voters, legislators, and bureaucrats. The incentives and behavior of judges, however, remain largely opaque. Do judges act as neutral third-party enforcers of substantive decisions made by others? Are judges "ordinary" policymakers who advance whatever outcomes they favor without any special consideration for law as such? Emerging recent scholarship has started to explore more nuanced conceptions of how law, facts, and judicial preferences may interact to influence judicial decisions. This work develops a perspective on judging that can usefully be understood as the modern manifestation of American Legal Realism, a jurisprudential movement of lawyers, judges, and law professors that flourished in the early twentieth century. The purpose of this essay is to introduce, in simplified form, the Realist account of judicial decision making; to contrast this view with alternative theories about law and judging; and to sketch out how a more explicit integration of the Realists' conceptual insights about law and judicial behavior might enrich the rapidly expanding economic work in this field.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Matthew C. Stephenson

Matthew C. Stephenson is Assistant Professor, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Referências

Baxter, William F. 1982. “Separation of Powers, Prosecutorial Discretion, and the ‘Common Law’ Nature of Antitrust Law”. Texas Law Review, 60(4): 661-703.

Bueno de Mesquita, Ethan, and Matthew C. Stephenson. 2002. “Informative Precedent and Intrajudicial Communication”. American Political Science Review, 96(4): 755-66.

Burton, Steven J. 2006. “The New Judicial Hostility to Arbitration: Federal Preemption, Contract Unconscionability, and Agreements to Arbitrate”. Journal of Dispute Resolution, 2006(2): 469-500.

Calabresi, Guido, and A. Douglas Melamed. 1972. “Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral”. Harvard Law Review, 85(6): 108-1128.

Cardozo, Benjamin N. 1921. The Nature of the Judicial Process. Yale University Press.

Chang, Tom, and Antoinette Schoar. 2008. “Judge Specific Differences in Chapter 11 and Firm Outcomes”. http://econ-www.mit.edu/files/3590.

Chirelstein, Marvin A. 2001. Concepts and Case Analysis in the Law of Contracts, Fourth Edition. Foundation Press.

Coase, Ronald H. 1960. “The Problem of Social Cost”. Journal of Law and Economics, 3(1): 1-44.

Cook, Walter Wheeler. 1943. “An Unpublished Chapter of the Logical and Legal Bases of the Conflict of Laws”. Illinois Law Review, 37(5): 418-24.

Cohen, Mark A. 1991. “Explaining Judicial Behavior or What’s ‘Unconstitutional’ about the Sentencing Commission”. Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, 7(1): 183-99.

Cross, Frank B. 1997. “Political Science and the New Legal Realism: An Unfortunate Case of Interdisciplinary Ignorance”. Northwestern University Law Review, 92(1): 251-326.

Cross, Frank B., and Emerson H. Tiller. 1998. “Judicial Partisanship and Obedience to Legal Doctrine: Whistleblowing on the Federal Courts of Appeals”. Yale Law Journal, 107(7): 2155-2176.

Dewatripont, Mathias, and Jean Tirole. 1999. “Advocates”. Journal of Political Economy, 107(1): 1-39.

Dworkin, Ronald. 1985. A Matter of Principle. Harvard University Press.

Easterbrook, Frank H. 1984. “Vertical Arrangements and the Rule of Reason”. Antitrust Law Journal, 53(1): 135-73.

Easterbrook, Frank H. 2004. “Judicial Discretion in Statutory Interpretation”. Oklahoma Law Review, 57(1): 1-20.

Feldman, Steven M. 2005. “The Rule of Law or the Rule of Politics? Harmonizing the Internal and External Views of Supreme Court Decision Making”. Law & Social Inquiry, 30(1): 89-135.

Fischman, Joshua B., and David S. Law. Forthcoming. “What Is Judicial Ideology, and How Should We Measure It?” Washington University Journal of Law and Policy. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1121228.

Fisher, William W., Morton J. Horowitz, and Tomas A. Reed, eds. 1993. American Legal Realism. Oxford University Press.

Frank, Jerome. 1930. Law and the Modern Mind. New York: Brentano’s.

Frank, Jerome. 1949. Courts on Trial. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fuller, Lon L. 1934. “American Legal Realism”. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 82(5): 429-62.

Gely, Rafael, and Pablo Spiller. 1992a. “The Political Economy of Supreme Court Constitutional Decisions: The Case of Roosevelt’s Courtpacking Plan”. International Review of Law & Economics, 12(1): 45-67.

Gely, Rafael, and Pablo Spiller. 1992b. “Congressional Control or Judicial Independence: The Determinants of U.S. Supreme Court Labor-Relations Decisions: 1949-1988”. RAND Journal of Economics, 23(4): 463-92.

Gennaioli, Nicola. 2006. “Contracting in the Shadow of the Law”. http://www.crei.cat/people/gennaioli/pdf_files/contracts.pdf.

Gennaioli, Nicola, and Andrei Shleifer. 2007a. “The Evolution of Common Law”. Journal of Political Economy, 115(1): 43-68.

Gennaioli, Nicola, and Andrei Shleifer. 2007b. “Overruling and the Instability of Law”. Journal of Comparative Economics, 35(2): 309-28.

Gennaioli, Nicola, and Andrei Shleifer. 2008. “Judicial Fact Discretion”. Journal of Legal Studies, 37(1): 1-35.

Hall, Richard L., and Alan V. Deardorff. 2006. “Lobbying as Legislative Subsidy”. American Political Science Review, 100 (1): 69-84.

Hart, Herbert Lionel Adolphus. 1961. The Concept of Law. Clarendon Press.

Higgins, Richard S., and Paul H. Rubin. 1980. “Judicial Discretion”. Journal of Legal Studies 9(1): 129-38.

Ho, Daniel E., and Erica L. Ross. Forthcoming. “Did Liberal Justices Invent the Standing Doctrine? An Empirical Study of the Evolution of Standing, 1921-2006”. Stanford Law Review.

Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb. 1913. “Some Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning”. Yale Law Journal, 23(1): 16-59.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. 1897. “The Path of the Law”. Harvard Law Review, 10(8): 457-78.

Huang, Bert I. 2007. “Measuring Judicial Discretion”. https://nberl5.nber.Org/c/2007/si2007/LE/huang.pdf.

Hutcheson, Joseph C. 1929. “The Judgment Intuitive: The Function of the ‘Hunch’ in Judicial Decision”. Cornell Law Quarterly, 14(3): 274 88.

Johnson, Timothy R. 2001. “Information, Oral Arguments, and Supreme Court Decision Making”. American Politics Research, 29(4): 331-51.

Johnson, Timothy R., Paul J. Wahlbeck, and James F. Spriggs. 2006. “The Influence of Oral Arguments on the U.S. Supreme Court”. American Political Science Review, 100(1): 99-113.

Kaiman, Laura. 1986. Legal Realism at Yale, 1927-1960. University of North Carolina Press.

Kastellec, Jonathan. 2007. “The Structure of Legal Rules and the Analysis of Judicial Decisions”. Available at SSRN: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=960190.

Kennedy, Duncan. 1976. “Form and Substance in Private Law Adjudication”. Harvard Law Review, 89(8): 1685-1778.

Kennedy, Duncan. 1986. “Freedom and Constraint in Adjudication: A Critical Phenomenology”. Journal of Legal Education, 36(4): 518-62.

Kornhauser, Lewis, and Lawrence Sager. 1986. “Unpacking the Court”. Yale Law Journal, 96(1): 82-117.

Landa, Dimitri, and Jeffrey Lax. Forthcoming. “Legal Doctrine on Collegial Courts”. Journal of Politics. http://www.columbia.edu/~jrl2124/Landa_Lax_Rules.pdf.

Lax, Jeffrey R. 2008. “Doctrinal Choice in the Judicial Hierarchy”. http://www.columbia.edu/~jrl2124/Rules%20vs%20Standards%202008.pdf.

Lax, Jeffrey, and Charles Cameron. 2007. “Bargaining and Opinion Assignment on the U.S. Supreme Court”. Journal of Law, Economics & Organization, 23(2): 276-392.

Leiter, Brian. 1997. “Rethinking Legal Realism: Toward a Naturalized Jurisprudence”. Texas Law Review, 76(2): 267-315.

Leiter, Brian. 2003. “American Legal Realism”. In The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory, ed. W. Edmundson and M. Golding, chap. 3. Wiley-Blackwell.

Llewellyn, Karl. 1950. “Remarks on the Theory of Appellate Decision and the Rules or Canons about How Statutes Are To Be Construed”. Vanderbilt Law Review, 3(3): 395-406.

Llewellyn, Karl. 1960. The Common Law Tradition: Deciding Appeals. Little, Brown & Co.

McAtee, Andrea, and Kevin T. McGuire. 2007. “Lawyers, Justices, and Issue Salience: When and How Do Legal Arguments Affect the Supreme Court?” Law and Society Review, 41(2): 259-78.

Miles, Thomas, and Cass Sunstein. 2006. “Do Judges Make Regulatory Policy: An Empirical Investigation of Chevron”. University of Chicago Law Review, 73(3): 823-81.

Miles, Thomas, and Cass Sunstein. 2008a. “The Real World of Arbitrariness Review”. University of Chicago Law Review, 75(2): 761-814.

Miles, Thomas, and Cass Sunstein. 2008b. “The New Legal Realism”. University of Chicago Law Review, 75(2): 831-52.

Niblett, Anthony, Richard Posner, and Andrei Shleifer. 2008. “The Evolution of a Legal Rule”. http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/shleifer/files/evol_legal_rule_jul08.pdf.

North, Douglass. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change, and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press.

Oliphant, Herman. 1928. “A Return to Stare Decisis”. American Bar Association Journal, 14(2): 71-6.

Posner, Richard A. 1993. “What Do Judges and Justices Maximize? (The Same Thing Everybody Else Does)”. Supreme Court Economic Review, vol. 3, pp. 1-41.

Posner, Richard A. 2005. “Forward: A Political Court”. Harvard Law Review, 119(1): 32-102.

Posner, Richard A. 2008. How Judges Think. Harvard University Press.

Pound, Roscoe. 1908. “Mechanical Jurisprudence”. Columbia Law Review, December, 8(8): 605-623.

Pound, Roscoe. 1909. “Liberty of Contract”. Yale Law Journal, 18(7): 454-87.

Pound, Roscoe. 1923. “The Theory of Judicial Decision”. Harvard Law Review, 36(8): 940-59.

Radin, Max. 1925. “The Theory of Judicial Decision: Or How Judges Think”. American Bar Association Journal, 11(6): 357-62.

Rasmussen, Eric B. 1994. “Judicial Legitimacy as a Repeated Game”. Journal of Law, Economics of Organization, 10(1): 63-83.

Ruger, Theodore W., Pauline T. Kim, Andrew D. Martin, and Kevin M. Quinn. 2004. “The Supreme Court Forecasting Project: Legal and Political Science Approaches to Predicting Supreme Court Decisionmaking”. Columbia Law Review, 104(4): 1150-1209.

Schauer, Fred. 1988a. “Formalism”. Yale Law Journal, 97(4): 509-48.

Schauer, Fred. 1988b. “Judging in a Corner of the Law”. Southern California Law Review, September, 61(6): 1717-33.

Schauer, Fred. 1987. “Precedent”. Stanford Law Review, February, 39(3): 571-605

Schauer, Fred. 1991. “Statutory Construction and the Coordinating Function of Plain Meaning”. Supreme Court Review, vol. 1990, pp. 231-56.

Schauer, Fred. 2000. “Incentives, Reputation, and the Inglorious Determinants of Judicial Behavior”. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 63(3): 615-36.

Schlegal, John Henry. 1995. American Legal Realism & Empirical Social Science. University of North Carolina Press.

Segal, Jeffrey, and Harold Spaeth. 1993. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model. Cambridge University Press.

Segal, Jeffrey, and Harold Spaeth. 2002. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited. Cambridge University Press.

Shavell, Steven M. 1980. “Strict Liability versus Negligence”. Journal of Legal Studies, 9(1): 1-25.

Shugerman, Jed Handelsman. 2000. “The Floodgates of Strict Liability: Bursting Reservoirs and the Adoption of Fletcher v. Rylands in the Gilded Age”. Yale Law Journal, 110(2): 333-77.

Singer, Joseph W. 1984. “The Player and the Cards: Nihilism and Legal Theory”. Yale Law Journal, 94(1): 1-70.

Singer, Joseph W. 1988. “Legal Realism Now”. California Law Review, 76(2): 465-544.

Stephenson, Matthew C. 2006a. “A Costly Signaling Theory of ‘Hard Look’ Judicial Review”. Administrative Law Review, 58(4): 753-813.

Stephenson, Matthew C. 2006b. “The Strategic Substitution Effect: Textual Plausibility, Procedural Formality, and Judicial Review of Agency Statutory Interpretations”. Harvard Law Review, 120(2): 528-72.

Sunstein, Cass R. 2001. “Cost-Benefit Default Principles”. Michigan Law Review, June, 99(7): 1651-1723.

Sunstein, Cass R., David Schkade, Lisa M. Ellman, and Andrew Sawicki. 2006. Are Judges Political? An Empirical Analysis of the Federal Judiciary. Brookings Institution Press.

Tamanaha, Brian Z. 2008a. “The Bogus Tale about the Legal Formalists”. St. John’s Legal Studies Working Paper No. 08-0130.

Tamanaha, Brian Z. 2008b. “Understanding Legal Realism”. St. John’s Legal Studies Working Paper No. 08-0133.

Tushnet, Mark. 1996. “Defending the Indeterminacy Thesis”. Quinnipiac Law Review, 16(3): 339-56.

Twining, William. 1973. Karl Llewellyn and the Realist Movement. Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Volokh, Alexander. 2008. “Choosing Interpretive Methods: A Positive Theory of Judges and Everyone Else”. New York University Law Review, 83(3): 769-843.

Wald, Patricia M. 1995. “The Rhetoric of Results and the Results of Rhetoric: Judicial Writings”. University of Chicago Law Review, 62(4): 1371-1419.

Weisbach, David A. 2002. “An Economic Analysis of Anti-Tax-Avoidance Doctrines”. American Law and Economics Review, 4(1): 88-115.

Whitehead, Alfred North. 1911. An Introduction to Mathematics. Cambridge University Press.

Downloads

Publicado

2022-08-22

Como Citar

C. Stephenson, M. (2022). Legal Realism for Economists. Revista De Direito Administrativo, 281(2), 15–44. https://doi.org/10.12660/rda.v281.2022.85994

Edição

Seção

Artigos